General characteristics of the disease
Iersinioz - an infectious disease, which is characterized by predominant involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, and generalized skin lesions, joints and other organs and systems.
Because the disease affects primarily the digestive tract, it is also called intestinal yersiniosis.
The causative agent of the disease is the representative of the family of intestinal bacteria of the species Yersinia enterocolitica. These microorganisms exhibit extreme resistance to low temperatures, including freezing, but die quickly at temperatures above 60
C, especially at reflux.
In addition, Yersinia excellent feel at +4 to +8
C multiply on food products, which is why yersiniosis often called the "disease of the refrigerator."
Carriers of infection in the wild are the small rodents, but a great danger to humans is small cattle and cows, which are capable of releasing the agent. Most often, Yersinia fall into the human body through food, especially fresh vegetables. However, in addition to food and water, the source of infection is already infected person, as yersiniosis and transmitted by contact (fecal-oral mechanism).
The risk of contracting the infection is for all ages, but are most often seen yersiniosis in children aged 1 to 3 years. This disease is characterized by the autumn and spring seasons.
The incubation period is usually 1-2 days, but in some cases can last up to 10 days. Symptoms iersinioza largely resemble gastroenteritis, gastroenterocolitis, enterocolitis, terminal ileitis.
For intestinal yersiniosis characteristic abdominal pain, which may be permanent or cramping in nature, vomiting, nausea, fetid diarrhea. Chair during the disease may be from 2 to 15 times a day with a mixture of pus, mucus and sometimes blood.
Symptoms of yersiniosis, in addition to intestinal lesions indicate also on the general intoxication - an increase or decrease in temperature, dehydration, toxemia. To begin with, in some cases the disease is characterized by the appearance of the rash melkopyatnistoy or spot on the limbs and trunk, as in this period can be observed iersinioza meningeal syndrome and liver disease.
For the later period of the infection characterized by the development of diseases such as erythema nodosum, mono- or arthritis, iritis, conjunctivitis, myocarditis, Reiter's syndrome.
Intestinal yersiniosis can last from one week to several months.
Diagnosis and treatment of yersiniosis
Discover Yersinia using laboratory equipment can be in the feces and urine of the sick person, and in special cases - in the blood, cerebrospinal fluid, bile, phlegm, pus from abscesses. To diagnose intestinal yersiniosis can also use the detection of antibodies to the pathogen, which usually appear on the 7th day after infection. However, it is possible that the immune response can be bland or completely absent, resulting antibodies will not be detected. Confidently speak of yersiniosis infection is possible in case of detection of pathogen antigens or DNA in blood or feces.
Treatment iersinioza, as well as other intestinal infections, suggests detoxication therapy, as well as replenishing lost fluids. Antibiotic therapy is also mandatory for the treatment of yersiniosis. Activators of this disease is usually sensitive to chloramphenicol, tetracyclines Biseptolum. If these drugs proved ineffective, prescribe fluoroquinol (ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin) and an intramuscular injection of gentamicin.
After the body temperature normalized, treatment of yersiniosis anibiotikami carried for another 10 days.
In situations where the symptoms persist, and agents in the body is not present, corticosteroids are used, whose action is directed at the suppression of the immune response. With the development of arthritis on a background of Yersinia infection prescribe nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin, voltaren, diclofenac, ibuprofen.
Intestinal yersiniosis children
Despite the fact that in most cases in children has yersiniosis typical symptoms of the infection, there are some clinical features of the disease in this age group. Firstly, signs of infection, such as intoxication, fever, fever are more pronounced than in adults. Second, children in times of illness are adynamic, restless, possible loss of consciousness, seizures, hemodynamic disorders. Especially hard yersiniosis occurs in children of the first year of life: there is dehydration, swollen lymph nodes, spleen, evident respiratory syndrome.
Prevent disease ierosinioz possible if you stick to the rules of storage and processing of food products:
- raw vegetables and fruits before eating should be well washed with warm water to remove the rotten areas, and then scalded with boiling water;
- Do not store or use the products, the shelf life of which has expired;
- should eat only freshly prepared salads;
- meat, especially pork, should be subjected to prolonged heat treatment;
- It can not be stored in the purified water vegetables, including in the refrigerator.
Prevention of intestinal yersiniosis is the timely identification of infected persons and their isolation, as well as disinfection of the premises.