The human body is able to withstand a lot, but there are limits, for which the cross is undesirable because of the possible tragic consequences. One of the factors that provoke the violation of human activity, is the lowest ambient temperature. If for a long time on the human exposure to the cold, he may develop hypothermia, in which the body temperature is reduced to critical numbers and is a violation of the work of all organs and systems.
Most susceptible to general hypothermia young children, the elderly, internally immobilized, physically exhausted, are unconscious people. Aggravate the disease strong winds, high humidity, fatigue, wet clothes, personal injury, alcohol or drug intoxication. To avoid possible tragedy, esteem than dangerous delirium tremens in the excessive use of alcohol on prozavisimost.ru.
Hypothermia legs and the whole body can be obtained even when bathing in a cool pond, the impact will depend on the length of stay in the water at such a temperature.
Signs of hypothermia
It recognizes not so difficult. Initially, the person experiences a surge of strength, he is overly excited, but it is marked nasolabial triangle cyanosis, pallor of the skin. Patients concerned about a strong fever, shortness of breath, rapid pulse.
If during this period will not be carried out any remedial measures, the excitement gives way to apathy, lethargy, confusion. The person loses the ability to move, it covers the weakness and drowsiness, is often observed loss of consciousness. Failure to render aid at overcooling leads to the cessation of cardiac and respiratory activity, resulting in a person killed.
The degree of supercooling
Depending on the patient, there are three degrees of hypothermia:
1. Easy. The body temperature is reduced to 32-34 degrees. The patient is observed chills, pale coloring of the skin, bluish lips and nasolabial triangle, "goose bumps", a person can hardly speak because of jitter lower jaw and lips. Blood pressure during mild hypothermia remains within the normal range, sometimes slightly increased. The patient is able to move independently. At this stage, may cause frostbite centers of 1-2 degrees.
2. Average. There is a further decrease in body temperature, it may reach 29-32 degrees. The skin become cyanotic hue, become cold to the touch. The patient covers indifference to what is happening, apathy and lethargy. With the general state of supercooling observed "stupor" in which the patient does not respond to the request it and other external stimuli.
Blood pressure is somewhat reduced, there is slow pulse, breathing then it becomes more scarce. Lose the ability of independent travel. Frostbite can be up to the fourth degree. Lack aid subcooled in the middle stage leads to the development of various complications in some cases to death of the patient.
3. Heavy. Below 31 degrees lowered body temperature, while there is loss of consciousness, slowing heart rate to 30-35 beats per minute. With the general overcooling skin and mucous becomes an expression of a bluish tint, there is swelling of the face, lips, hands and feet. The patient loses consciousness, seizures occur, the state transition to the heavier one. The blood pressure dramatically decreases, breathing becomes very rare. Frostbite at this stage of hypothermia general quite heavy. Man needs emergency medical care, otherwise it waits for death.
First aid for supercooling
First aid for supercooling is to eliminate the impact of cold on the human factor. To do this you need to bring the victim into a warm room, or if it can not be done, put in a sheltered location and precipitation. From wet clothes should immediately get rid of, then the patient should be wrapped in a dry linen or blanket. If there is hypothermia legs or head, enough to remove wet shoes and wear something warm on his head.
If the person is conscious, it is necessary to give him to drink hot milk, juice, water or tea. With the general overcooling advisable to take a bath with warm water first, and then more hot, but not higher than 40 degrees. After the water treatment of the victim are placed in a warmed bed and draped heaters or hot water bottle. On the frosted parts necessary to impose clean, preferably sterile dressing.
In an unconscious patient is necessary to control the presence of breathing and pulse. In the absence of such should immediately begin chest compressions and rescue breathing.
After first aid person affected by hypothermia, it is necessary to be taken to hospital, even if at first glance, his condition is satisfactory. Some complications can reveal only a doctor.
What not to do at the supercooling
In order not to cause even greater harm to the patient should not be given coffee and drinks. It is not recommended to put a man in hot water without warming. When supercooling prohibited intensively rubbing the skin with snow, oil, alcohol-based, or simply keep your hands dry and pierce the bubbles formed on the site of frostbite. For heating the victim can not use an open flame. The use of these methods leads to sudden temperature changes that can damage the small capillaries, the emergence of internal hemorrhages and other equally serious complications.
- Children should walk in and large enough to pick up on seasonal clothing. It is not recommended to tie the mouth and nose with a scarf to avoid exposing the skin to moist and cold air. Gloves and socks must be dry. In cold days children need every 15-20 minutes to go to a warm place to warm up.
- Adults should always use a scarf, hat and mittens. You can not go out in the cold with damp hair.
- It is advisable to dress to put on a few more were thin garments than one, but dense and heavy. Air gap saves from premature exposure. Shoes should not be too tight and wet.
- In the cold smoking is not recommended, as the cigarette you smoke reduces the peripheral blood circulation.
- Do not wet the liquid lubricated moisturizer or skin before going out.
- During the walk you need to keep an eye out for health. At the first sign of hypothermia need to go to a warm place.
The measures will allow the prevention of hypothermia, if not avoided altogether, or at least significantly reduce its negative impact on the body.