Hyperthyroidism - a pathological condition caused by elevated levels of hormones (triiodothyronine, thyroxine) thyroid provoke intoxication. To indicate this state also uses the term hyperthyroidism.
Hyperthyroidism: general information about the disease
When hyperthyroidism in the blood and tissues of the body receives an excess of thyroid hormones, which leads to dissociation of tissue and oxidative phosphorylation. Hyperthyroidism inevitably leads to disruption of energy metabolism in the body. As a result, the body is excess heat generation, reduced amount of energy accumulated ATP. Restores energy is due to the acceleration of metabolic processes in the body.
An excess of thyroid hormones in the body leads to disruption of many processes affecting the nervous system, heart function, visual function, the function of the musculoskeletal system, gastrointestinal tract, reproductive system. It is believed that the dysfunction of the thyroid gland does not lead to serious consequences if adequate medical correction status. In the absence of proper treatment of hyperthyroidism can develop the following complications:
- Infiltrative ophthalmopathy;
- heart failure;
- Various forms of arrhythmias;
- Thyrotoxic crisis - a serious condition in which there is an avalanche-like increase of manifestations caused by a sharp increase in the concentration of thyroid hormones in the blood.
Depending on the emergence and development of hyperthyroidism isolated violations of the following types:
- Primary - breach develops in the thyroid gland;
- Secondary - violation develops in the pituitary gland;
- Tertiary - a violation occurs in the hypothalamus.
The main risk factors for hyperthyroidism in the body:
- Family history;
- The chronic shortage of iodine intake;
- Autoimmune diseases;
- Chronic forms of stress.
The course is characterized by hyperthyroidism sex and age factors. Men more likely to occur in thyrotoxicosis development infiltrative ophthalmopathy, the elderly hyperthyroidism often accompanied by disturbance of heart rhythm, characteristic changes of the psyche. In childhood, hyperthyroidism is characterized by neurotic manifestations.
Hyperthyroidism: Causes of the disease
When thyrotoxicosis causes of thyroid dysfunction are:
- Toxic diffuse goiter, Graves' disease is also - an autoimmune disease, the most common cause of hyperthyroidism;
- Toxic nodular goiter or toxic thyroid adenoma (Plummer's disease) - a benign tumor, independently producing thyroid hormones;
- Subacute thyroiditis - diffuse or focal inflammation of the thyroid gland;
- Uncontrolled administration of drugs containing thyroid hormones;
- Excess intake of iodine or;
- Ovarian teratoma - a special type of a tumor, formed gonocytes;
- Pituitary tumors with increased secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone.
When thyrotoxicosis causes of violations is extremely important because the treatment status should be directed not only to normalize hormone levels in the body, but also to eliminate the causes of the production of thyroid hormones in excess. In order to establish the causes of hyperthyroidism patients need a comprehensive examination. When thyrotoxicosis causes of thyroid dysfunction are responsible for the tactics of treatment and prevention of future relapses.
Depending on the severity of symptomatic complex of hyperthyroidism is characterized by mild, moderate and severe forms. When thyrotoxicosis symptoms suggestive of thyroid dysfunction, may be:
- Sudden weight loss in the unaltered diet and diet, accompanied by a good appetite;
- Chills, fever, feeling of temperature changes in the body;
- Decreased sexual desire;
- Menstrual irregularities in women until the complete cessation of periodic bleeding;
- Irregular heartbeat, palpitations manifested at rest;
- The tremor, trembling in the limbs;
- Increased sweating;
- Anxiety, restlessness, sleep disturbances (insomnia to hypersomnia);
- Disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, manifested by vomiting, frequent diarrhea and constipation;
- Fatigue, depression, stress, psychological fatigue;
- Impaired memory, concentration;
- Violation of visual function, development pucheglazija.
When thyrotoxicosis patient disturbed the rhythm of life. There are signs of increased fatigue, even after a long period of rest, emotional instability, develops tearfulness, anxiety. Man overcome new phobia, due to metabolic disorders frequently observed anorexia. When thyrotoxicosis symptoms may also manifest itself in the form of muscle weakness (myopathy thyrotoxic). Develops general exhaustion. When inappropriate treatment, or no treatment at all hyperthyroidism can lead to death.
Hyperthyroidism: treatment, doctors' recommendations
When thyrotoxicosis treatment involves a comprehensive approach, taking into account the causes of disorders, symptomatic complex, the general condition of the patient. Treatment should take place simultaneously at several levels: in addition to hormonal correction, elimination of the causes of hormonal intoxication, the patient should receive restorative treatment.
When thyrotoxicosis treatment involves:
- Conservative methods of treatment of hyperthyroidism - the basis of conservative methods are thyreostatics used to suppress hyperthyroidism. Drug therapy requires special care with medication to prevent recurrence. Drug therapy helps to normalize the function of the hypothalamus, the central nervous system, or compensate them;
- Radical methods involve surgery. When thyrotoxicosis treatment radical methods used for the ineffectiveness of drug correction suspected malignancies, with retrosternal goiter location, with a significant increase of the thyroid gland;
- The radioactive method involves administration of drugs containing radioactive iodine. When hyperthyroidism with radioactive iodine treatment is effective and safe. Iodine accumulates in the thyroid cells, resulting in their destruction and replacement by connective tissue. The technique allows you to quickly reduce the symptomatic manifestation of the complex. The main risk in the treatment of radioactive iodine is complete inhibition of thyroid function, which requires a lifetime of hormone replacement therapy.