General characteristics of the disease
Hydrocephalus, or brain edema - a neurological disorder caused by the accumulation of fluid in the ventricular system and subarachnoid brain regions. Hydrocephalus brain develops as a result of excessive development or poor drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
Violations result in the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid injury, infectious and parasitic diseases, tumors and adhesions in the brain. As a result, cerebrospinal fluid accumulates, the ventricles increases the volume of the brain and lead to an overall increase in the size of the skull, thinning and rupture of the ventricular walls, as well as problems with vision, stroke, epileptic seizures and other complications hydrocephalus brain.
Congenital hydrocephalus brain
Hydrocephalus brain in children more often congenital. In this scenario, you experience the most severe complications of the disease, which developed even during the prenatal period.
Congenital hydrocephalus brain in children is accompanied by an increase in head size up to 50% of the standard volume. Frequent causes of congenital hydrocephalus brain disease in children are the anomalies of fetal development and the structure of the brain in utero transferred meningitis, hemorrhage, etc.
Symptoms of congenital hydrocephalus brain in children are:
- moodiness caused by increased intracranial pressure;
- poor appetite,
- mottling of the skin,
- Retraction of the century (excessive eye opening)
- preferential direction of looking down.
Acquired hydrocephalus hypertensive brain
To cause disease tumors, cysts, inflammation, or abnormal bone changes in the posterior fossa. Hypertensive hydrocephalus in adult brain appears bilateral frontal and occipital pain, nausea and vomiting, caused by the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid and increased intracranial pressure. Simultaneously developing:
- swelling of the optic nerve,
- slowness of movement,
- the weakening of the intellect,
- violation of reflexes.
Acquired normal pressure hydrocephalus brain
With this type of disease are relatively normal levels of intracranial pressure. Aggravating factors normotensive hydrocephalus brain complications are meningitis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, trauma or aneurysm.
The accumulation of fluid in the head leads to pressure on the white matter of the brain, as a result, develop:
- gait disturbance,
- urinary incontinence.
Unreported and communicating hydrocephalus types of brain
Unreported or closed hydrocephalus brain in adults or children develops when fluid from the ventricles of the brain can not get into the subarachnoid space. If the obstacles to the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid is not present, the condition is called open or communicating hydrocephalus brain. Children have both types of diseases are caused by congenital organic causes, in adults - acquired intracranial tumors and cysts.
Overall, internal and external hydrocephalus brain
Depending on the location of the cerebrospinal fluid decided to allocate internal (ventricular), total external hydrocephalus and brain in adults and children.
When the inner form of the disease liquor mainly accumulates in the ventricles of the brain. External hydrocephalus is characterized by accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the subarachnoid space. And overall, or a mixed form of hydrocephalus, brain develops during the localization of cerebrospinal fluid in the cavities of the brain.
Diagnosis of hydrocephalus brain
In the diagnosis of the disease used computer and magnetic resonance tomography, the study of the fundus, and lumbar puncture. Diagnosis of hydrocephalus of the brain in children up to 3 years is complicated by the need to use general anesthesia.
The alternative to CT and MRI in the diagnosis of hydrocephalus of the brain in children under 1, 5 years is neurosonography. Visualization of ventricles and subarachnoid space by NSG is possible only before the closing of a large fontanelle.
Treatment for hydrocephalus brain
Treatment for hydrocephalus brain primarily surgical. With the help of medical methods can be achieved only slowing the progression of the disease or lower the intracranial pressure when hydrocephalic syndrome. The latter is characterized by indirect signs of accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the background of increased intracranial pressure and increased the volume of the head.
Surgical treatment of hydrocephalus, brain successfully for more than 85% of cases. With bypass surgery may complete removal of excess cerebrospinal fluid in hydrocephalus in adult brain. The patient fully recovers and returns to normal. However, after some time it may need full or partial replacement of the shunt. Hydrocephalus brain in children due to increased head shunt revision performed 2-3 times.
Furthermore, in the treatment of congenital forms of the disease of brain hydrocephalus in children and longer directed at the maximum correction of congenital disease complications.
The priority in the development of methods of treatment of hydrocephalus of the brain are minimally invasive endoscopic surgery. With them also possible to install a shunt system, the removal of blocking the outflow of cerebrospinal fluid cysts or tumors.
The endoscopic treatment of hydrocephalus of the brain are most commonly used endoscopic ventrikulotsisternostomiya, septostomy and akveduktoplastika. They have a minimum percentage of postoperative complications and a faster recovery period.