Due to a change in one or more hemostasis arises a tendency to bleeding of mucous membranes and skin hemorrhages, which is called a hemorrhagic syndrome.
In medicine syndrome distinguish five types, namely:
- Sinyachkovy or petechial-spotted - typical thrombocytopathy, hereditary clotting factor deficiencies, thrombocytopenia, and disfibrinogenemii hypofibrinogenemia. At a hemorrhagic syndrome, a deficiency of this type II, V and X coagulation factors;
- Gematomny - arises against hemophilia A and B, characterized by a deficiency VIII, IX and XI of the blood clotting factors. The patient gradually developed dysfunction of the musculoskeletal system, a voltage painful bleeding into the soft tissues and joints. After a few hours after the injury begins characteristic of this type of syndrome of delayed bleeding;
- Microcirculatory-gematomny, or mixed - is typical of DIC and von Willebrand disease, often occurs when an overdose of anticoagulants and thrombolytics, severe shortage of prothrombin complex, the appearance of immune inhibitors of factors VIII and IX in the blood. It is characterized by a combination of mixed hemorrhagic syndrome in the intestinal wall and retroperitoneal hematoma with a single large-spotted skin petechial hemorrhages;
- Vasculitis purple - develops on the background of infectious and immune vasculitis, characterized by the development on the basis of inflammatory hemorrhages in the form of erythema or rash, it is peculiar to the accession of intestinal bleeding and jade. This type of syndrome is easily transformed to DIC;
- Angiomatous - developed in the areas of arteriovenous shunts, angiomas and telangiectasia, he held a formation associated with zones of vascular disease resistant local hemorrhages.
According to statistics, hemorrhagic syndrome in women occurs more often than men.
Hemorrhagic Syndrome: Causes and Symptoms
The defeat of the vascular wall and its structure, and the number of platelet function, as well as a violation of coagulation are the causes of hemorrhagic syndrome. In some cases the disease are common, in others - is extremely rare, it's important to consider the diagnosis of the disease.
Acquired forms of the syndrome most commonly develops in the secondary thrombocytopathy and thrombocytopenia, prothrombin complex deficiency, disseminated intravascular coagulation and hemorrhagic vasculitis.
Recently, the development of hemorrhagic syndrome more often associated with taking drugs that disrupt platelet aggregation and blood clotting. Also, the cause of the syndrome may be a Vergolfa disease, hemophilia and prothrombin deficiency.
Symptoms of the syndrome are the fainting, bleeding of various types and degrees of difficulty, as well as bleeding (hemorrhagic diathesis).
Hemorrhagic syndrome in newborns
A consequence of the lack of synthesis of factors thrombin index is a hemorrhagic syndrome (disease) newborns. Because vitamin K deficiency in children, it occurs in the form of congenital coagulopathies.
According to statistics, 20 years ago, hemorrhagic syndrome in newborns met at 0, 25-0, 5%, nowadays widespread use in clinical practice, dose of 1 mg of vitamin K which reduced this index to 0, 01% or less.
Development of the syndrome in newborns can be caused by several factors, namely:
- Pregnant woman receiving antibiotics, anticonvulsants and anti-TB drugs, indirect anticoagulants, crosses the placenta;
- Late by applying baby to the breast, preterm infants, perinatal hypoxia and prolonged parenteral nutrition;
- Malabsorption syndrome, the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and artificial feeding the baby.
In rare cases, hemorrhagic syndrome in the newborn is shown on the first day of life, more often it develops in 5-7 hours.
Diagnosis of hemorrhagic syndrome
First, to confirm the diagnosis is necessary to conduct a detailed analysis of blood and urine, simple coagulation tests, to carry out peripheral blood platelet counts, may require indications of sternal puncture.
A doctor in the diagnosis must take into account the duration of bleeding and clotting time, check for fibrinogen and prothrombin, as well as to determine the tolerance (resistance) of the plasma to heparin.
Prevention and treatment of hemorrhagic syndrome
To prevent the development of the syndrome in newborn infants is recommended to perform the following preventive measures:
- Administered subcutaneously vitamin K preterm infants;
- Applying a newborn baby to the breast in the first hour after birth.
Treatment of hemorrhagic syndrome in infants occurs by intramuscular injection of vitamin K, as well as infant feeding expressed breast milk or donor breast seven times a day.
Regardless of the age of the patient, with the development of bleeding should be provided emergency medical assistance aimed at stopping it. For the prevention of bleeding adult patients may have to take hemostatics, increases blood clotting. On an individual basis, depending on the indication and the patient's condition, the doctor may prescribe a subsequent medical treatment.
Hemorrhagic syndrome in women, men and babies manifests itself as a tendency to bleeding of mucous membranes and skin hemorrhages. Patients need urgent hospitalization and the use of appropriate treatment, including stopping bleeding, restoring the level of vitamin K in the body, as well as the use of drugs that increase blood clotting.