Brief description of the disease
Hemorrhagic diathesis represent a group of diseases characterized by an increased tendency of the body to bleed and hemorrhage.
Hemorrhagic diathesis have different etiologies and mechanisms of development.
Types of bleeding diathesis
Hemorrhagic diathesis may occur as an independent disease, and to develop other diseases. In this case we speak of secondary hemorrhagic diathesis.
- Congenital or hereditary hemorrhagic diathesis. Manifest hereditary hemorrhagic diathesis in children and accompany a person throughout life. Characteristic of diseases such as hemorrhagic telangiectasia, various hemophilia, a disease Glantsmana, thrombocytopathy children, etc.
- Acquired hemorrhagic diathesis in children and adults is a manifestation of diseases associated with blood clotting and the state of the vascular wall. These include hemorrhagic purpura, hereditary and disaggregation thrombocytopathy, hemorrhagic vasculitis, vascular lesions in the liver, poisoning, drugs, infections.
The types of hemorrhagic diathesis
Depending on the causes and mechanisms of the following types (groups) diathesis:
- Diathesis, which are caused by a violation of platelet hemostasis. This group includes thrombocytopathy and thrombocytopenia. Also, there may be in violation of immunity, kidney and liver diseases, viral infections, under the influence of high doses of chemotherapy and radiation.
- Diathesis, which arise as a result of blood clotting. This group includes diseases such as hemophilia A, B, C, fibrinolytic purpura and others. These diathesis may occur as a result of receiving anticoagulants or fibrinolytic agents.
- Diathesis due to violation of the integrity of the vascular wall. These include vitamin deficiency C, hemorrhagic vasculitis, haemorrhagic telangiectasia and other diseases.
- Diathesis, arising as a platelet hemostasis and coagulation disorders. This group includes von Willebrand disease, trombogemorragichesky syndrome. Such diathesis may occur when radiation sickness hemoblastoses and other diseases.
Types of bleeding during hemorrhagic diathesis
There are five types of bleeding.
Gematomny type of bleeding - usually occurs in hemophilia, while noting the presence of large hematomas, bleeding into joints, bleeding after surgery.
Capillary type of bleeding - characteristic of thrombocytopenia, hereditary and disaggregation thrombocytopathy. This type of bleeding observed small hemorrhages in the form of petechiae or ecchymosis, as in bleeding from the nose, gums, stomach and uterine bleeding.
Mixed - characterized by the presence of hematoma and small spotty rash on the skin. There is a large number when receiving anticoagulants and thrombohemorrhagic syndrome.
Purple style - characterized by small symmetrical rash on the lower limbs. This type of bleeding is shown at hemorrhagic vasculitis.
Mikroangiomatozny type of bleeding - is characterized by recurrent bleeding. Occurs when the inherited disorders of small blood vessels.
Symptoms of bleeding diathesis
The main symptom is the presence on the body of various rashes, nature and location of which depends on the form and type of disease. There may be bleeding and hemorrhage, extensive bruising. In severe disease rashes turn into ulcers. Can bother abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting with blood.
Diagnosis of hemorrhagic diathesis
Diagnosis of the disease is to identify the causes of bleeding. To do this, assign common blood and urine tests, as well as biochemistry, coagulation (analysis to determine clotting) analysis to determine the content of trace elements in the blood serum. Also determine the total time of blood clotting, the concentration of prothrombin, prothrombin and thrombin conduct tests. To diagnose the disease using immunological tests, and other tests that are prescribed by a doctor.
Treatment of bleeding diathesis
Treatment depends on the kind and type diathesis, and the mechanism of bleeding.
If there are diseases such as vasculitis, and thrombocytopenic purpura, then apply the treatment with corticosteroids, vitamin deficiency If you assign C ascorbic acid, vitamin PP, rutin. If a patient is concerned about the abundant and often repeated bleeding, surgical intervention with removal of the spleen. In hemophilia used transfusions of blood or plasma. Anemia involves the appointment of iron supplementation, diet.