In the early twentieth century, researchers Barre Guillain Shtrol and described an unknown disease among the soldiers of the French Army. The men were paralyzed, they were noted tendon reflexes, sensory loss was observed. Scientists have studied the cerebrospinal fluid of patients and determined that it was raised by the protein content, while the amount of the remaining cells was completely normal. On the basis of protein-cell association, as shown by the analysis of the cerebrospinal liquor, he was diagnosed with Guillain-Barre syndrome, which is different from other diseases of the nervous system demielineziruyuschih fast current and a favorable prognosis. Test soldiers recovered earlier than 2 months.
It subsequently emerged that the Guillain-Barre syndrome is not as harmless as he is described by the discoverers. In the 20 years before the description of the disease neurologist Landry watched patients with similar diseases. They also noted lingering paralysis is rapidly developing in the ascending nerve tracts. The rapid progression of the disease led to death. The defeat of the nervous system called the Landry paralysis. It subsequently emerged that the Guillain-Barre syndrome can also lead to death by shutting down the transmission in the diaphragm muscle. But even in these patients was observed pattern laboratory protein-cell association in the cerebrospinal fluid of the spinal canal.
Then they decided to combine both disease and pathology assign a name Landry-Guillain-Barre syndrome, and to this day neurologists are proposed terminology. However, the international classification of diseases registered only one name: Guillain-Barre syndrome or acute postinfectious polyneuropathy.
Guillain-Barre syndrome, causes
As the disease develops after infection, there is an assumption that it was a process she calls demilienizatsii nerve fibers. However, direct infectious agent is still not revealed. On myelin fibers of nerve tissue deposited complexes "antigen-antibody", which can cause destruction of myelin.
The myelin sheath placed over the nerve trunk at regular intervals. They play the role of capacitors, so the nerve impulses are transmitted faster than a few dozen times and reach "the addressee" unchanged. When developing Guillain-Barre syndrome, its causes kroyatsya to reduce capacity "capacitors." As a result, nerve transmission is delayed and becomes invalid. Man intends to squeeze fingers, but can only move them.
This is the essence of demyelinating disease of the nervous system. When a person develops Guillain-Barre syndrome, affected the transmission of impulses to the major vital organs, such as:
- The heart muscle;
- Swallowing muscles.
When paralysis of these bodies cease functioning of the organism.
Guillain-Barre syndrome, the symptoms
The paradox of the disease lies in the fact that the development of a favorable outcome of acute accounted for two-thirds of the patients and the chronic course of the prognosis is poor.
Guillain-Barre syndrome begins after acute viral infections, most commonly respiratory. In the form of complications from the flu a person develops weakness, which is transmitted hands and feet. Subsequently, the subjective feeling of weakness progressing to flaccid paralysis. When acute course of the following symptoms develop:
- The disappearance of the swallowing reflex;
- Paradoxical type of breathing - during inspiration the abdominal wall does not expand, but rather will fall;
- Violation of the sensitivity of the distal extremities of the type "gloves" and "stocking".
In severe cases, breathing is disabled due to paralysis of the diaphragm.
When developing primary chronic Guillain-Barre syndrome, symptoms increase slowly over several months, but at the peak of symptoms, they are difficult to treat. As a result of the effects of paralysis remain for a lifetime.
The clinical course of Guillain-Barre syndrome
In the course of the disease is determined by the 3 stages:
Prodromal period characterized by general malaise, muscle pain in hands and feet, a slight increase in temperature.
At the height of exhibit all the symptoms associated with Guillain-Barre syndrome, which reached its peak at the end of the phase.
Stage outcome is characterized by the complete absence of any signs of infection, but occurs only neurological symptoms. Ends disease or complete recovery of all the functions, or disability.
Guillain-Barre syndrome, treatment
In acute beginning, especially when developing Guillain-Barre syndrome in children in the first place are resuscitation. Timely connection ventilator saves the life of the patient.
Long stay in the intensive care unit requires additional treatment, prevention of bedsores and made the fight against infections, including nosocomial.
Uniqueness disease Guillain-Barre is that when adequate ventilation occurs regeneration myelin sheaths without drug exposure.
Modern methods of treatment of Guillain-Barre syndrome, especially in children, provide for plasmapheresis. Cleansing the blood plasma of autoimmune complexes prevents the progression of the demyelination of the nerve fibers and significantly reduces the period of mechanical ventilation.
Currently, Guillain-Barre syndrome amenable to treatment using injections of immunoglobulin. The method expensive, but effective. The recovery period of physiotherapy methods are used, physiotherapy and massage.