General characteristics of the disease
Gastroenteritis - an inflammation of the mucous membranes of the stomach and small intestine. In most cases, it leads to rotavirus infection, transmitted by oral, fecal, household, food, or waterway. In this case the inflammatory process affects the mucous oropharynx.
With the defeat of colon disease called gastroenterocolitis. Depending on the severity of symptoms to distinguish between acute gastroenteritis and chronic. In common parlance the disease is often called stomach flu.
Mass cases of acute gastroenteritis recorded in official medical documents at the end of the XIX century. To date, the disease still has the second highest prevalence in disadvantaged regions of the earth. In 1980, the year of acute gastroenteritis in the world has died more than 4.6 million. People.
Thanks to modern treatment of acute gastroenteritis deaths today managed to reduce to 3 times.
Causes of gastroenteritis
The causative agent is rotavirus gastroenteritis family Reoviridae. There are several species of the microorganism. Some of them cause inflammation of the mucosa of the stomach and small intestine in humans. Others considered typical of acute gastroenteritis pathogens in animals and are not dangerous to humans.
In a quarter of cases, the virus is the cause of acute gastroenteritis is the so-called travel sickness - acute poisoning and intestinal disorders.
For rotavirus characterized good survival in the environment. The causative agent of acute gastroenteritis is capable of up to 2 months to maintain its viability in tap water with temperatures above 20˚, on vegetables - up to 1 month and in faeces - up to 7 months.
The source of infection with rotavirus is often the people. The most dangerous period is the first week of illness. The next 10-30 days contagiousness (the probability of infecting others with acute gastroenteritis) the patient is gradually reduced.
In rare cases, the human body can shed the virus several months after illness. Specific symptoms of gastroenteritis in it with no.
Acute gastroenteritis in children
Asymptomatic carriers of infection are identified, usually among adults. Gastroenteritis in children, on the contrary, takes place in the most acute form.
Timely detection of asymptomatic carriers of infection in schools, kindergartens and other institutions plays a huge role in the prevention of acute gastroenteritis in children. The most susceptible to viruses children up to 3 years.
The source of infection of gastroenteritis in children under one year is often the mother herself. The group risk include children with congenital diseases, various forms of immunodeficiency, or children residing in the artificial feeding.
Postinfectious immunity gastroenteritis short.
The symptoms of gastroenteritis
Disease begins acutely, after an incubation period of 1-5 days. The earliest symptoms of gastroenteritis are considered to be nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.
When mild form of gastroenteritis vomiting may be single. She stopped for the first night. However, this symptom of acute gastroenteritis, diarrhea, manifest until 5-7 days. Razzhizhёnny chair observed up to 6 times a day.
Patients with symptoms of gastroenteritis also complain of feeling of weakness, pain in the umbilical region, heaviness in the stomach, loss of appetite and headache.
In severe acute gastroenteritis in children in particular, a chair - a fetid liquid, frothy, with mucus to 12-15 times a day.
Diagnosis of gastroenteritis
Time examination of the patient the doctor pays attention to the following clinical symptoms of gastroenteritis:
- muscle weakness of the patient,
- pronounced noise intestinal peristalsis,
- swelling of the throat,
- white plaque on the tongue,
- muffled heart sounds,
- low-grade temperature readings (37, 1-37, 3˚).
In severe forms of acute gastroenteritis are possible fever and serious dehydration, up to the circulatory failure and anuria (cessation of urine production).
A typical symptom of rotavirus gastroenteritis is a form of the disease on the background of complications of respiratory tract: development of pharyngitis, rhinitis or mixed forms of the disease.
The laboratory methods for diagnosis of gastroenteritis include virus isolation in faeces of the patient with the help of RLA, RCA, RAC, ELISA techniques, gel immunoprecipitation or immunofluorescence.
Treatment of gastroenteritis
Effective treatment of gastroenteritis etiotropic missing. This means that modern medicine is not known way to impact on the cause of the disease.
Measures First Aid for early symptoms of gastroenteritis include:
- abstaining from food for 1-2 days,
- drinking plenty of fluids,
- easily digestible diet after the acute period of the disease,
- nicotine withdrawal,
- bed rest.
In acute gastroenteritis in young children are advised to continue breastfeeding.
For drug therapy gastroenteritis include polyenzyme drugs: Abamin, Polizim, Pancreatin, Festal, etc., as well as adsorbents and drugs with astringent effect.
To correct the water and electrolyte balance in the treatment of severe forms of gastroenteritis used intravenous drip regidrantov. Oral intake and plasma-detoxification solutions (Regidron, Refortnan, etc.) is used for acute gastroenteritis mild and moderate forms.