Ovarian cyst - a benign ovarian education hollow, formed as in the ovary, as well as on the surface, filled with fluid secretion.
Functional cysts. Types. Causes of
There are three types of ovarian cysts:
- Functional ovarian cysts (follicular, luteal) - hollow formation formed from the natural structures of the ovary that appear due to violation of the process of ovulation and the continued growth of the follicle (a structural component of the ovary that contains the egg, surrounded by a layer of epithelial cells and several layers of connective tissue);
- Endometrial cysts - tumors that develop as a result of endometriosis (abnormal proliferation of endometrial cells);
- Cystic tumors - true neoplasm, formed of new fabrics with a change of the genetic apparatus of cells to external signs, such cysts.
A functional cyst is the most common disease of the ovaries in women of childbearing age. The functional ovarian cysts, usually develops from the structure formed in the ovary during ovulation. In the normal process of maturation and release of the egg from the ovary to the cavity formed by the mucous bag that dissolves after the beginning of the movement of the egg to the uterus. If any violation of ovulation, hormonal imbalance, inflammation formed functional ovarian cyst, which accumulates a secretory liquid. Functional cysts can be of two types:
- Follicular functional cyst - cystic formation, formed from stretching the shell of the follicle in the ovary. When ultrasound monitoring of follicular cyst is a single chamber with the formation of thin translucent walls, in the direction of developing the abdominal cavity;
- A functional cyst is the corpus luteum (luteal functional cyst) - cystic formation, formed of corpus luteum (temporary gland producing the hormone progesterone), under the influence of luteinizing hormone of the pituitary gland. These cysts are formed after ovulation. When ultrasound monitoring luteal cyst is unilateral tumor with thick walls, accumulating fluid (sometimes with blood).
A functional cyst occurs more frequently in women of childbearing age and is rarely diagnosed in menopause and in women after 50 years. Functional cyst - a benign formation of a temporary nature, does not degenerate into a malignant form. Functional cyst usually develops on the one hand in the dominant follicle.
The causes of functional cysts are still unknown. Factors contributing to the formation of functional cysts are:
- Violation of hormonal;
- Oral contraceptives;
- Bad habits, stress;
- Other diseases.
However, it should be noted that not all patients with disorders of hormonal functional cyst occurs.
Functional cysts: Symptoms
In most cases, the functional cyst is characterized by asymptomatic. Functional cysts are diagnosed with a planned inspection of the patient or when the survey about the other diseases of the genitourinary system are women. In the diagnosis of symptoms of functional cysts can be expressed as follows:
- The feeling of pain and fullness in the groin area (usually one-sided localization);
- Pain during sexual acts and physical activity;
- nausea, vomiting;
- Pain of referred to the rectum;
- Pain in the lower back of referred;
- Menstrual irregularities;
- Scarce spotting episodic nature in the middle of the menstrual cycle;
- Symptoms as swelling in the groin area (extremely rare manifestation observed in achieving large cyst).
Severity of the symptoms of ovarian cysts depends on the size of tumors. Often, when a functional cyst symptoms associated with cystic formation and conduct a survey to exclude inflammatory processes, hormonal disorders and other pathologies. When a functional cyst symptoms are generic for a number of disorders and diseases of the genitourinary system.
Break functional cysts: Risks
Typically, a functional cyst does not bear danger for the health of the patient. In some cases, cyst leads to disruption of reproductive function. The main risk in the development of ovarian cysts is a gap of functional cysts. This condition is dangerous because it can lead to death of the patient. The main symptoms of rupture of ovarian cysts are:
- Acute pain in the groin area on the affected side;
- Vaginal bleeding;
- Internal bleeding;
- The pain of referred to the rectum;
- Weakness, loss of consciousness.
With this complication of the patient requires emergency surgical care. For the diagnosis of functional cyst rupture, the following methods:
- Ultrasound or computed tomography;
- Puncture of the posterior vaginal wall (in an emergency) - the appearance of the blood to determine the functional ovarian cyst rupture.
Break functional ovarian cysts characterized by a large hemorrhage (internal bleeding is a common symptom, rather than vaginal). In some cases death from blood loss.
Functional cysts: treatment
Generally, for the diagnosis of functional cysts treatment is not required. Patients diagnosed with a functional cyst require dynamic ultrasound monitoring for several menstrual cycles, as a cyst may regress completely dissolve.
The dynamics of functional cysts determines the further treatment strategy. Treatment to be functional cysts that persist for two menstrual cycles or more, as well as recurrent cysts developing in the same ovary again. When a functional cyst treatment can be conservative and radical.
As a preventive measure it is recommended homeopathic therapy, vitamins, lifestyle changes (normalization regime of rest and work), emotional, physical rest, avoidance of sexual intimacy.
Conservative treatment is aimed at the normalization of hormonal background of the patient, preventing the development of inflammation and complications (rupture of functional cysts). When expressed painful sensations apply symptomatic treatment.
Radical tactics of treatment (surgical excision of the cyst) is used when the risk of complications, as well as cysts rupture. Currently practiced as a laparoscopic surgery technique and the traditional conduct of operations cavital access. If surgical intervention is maintained as much as possible the healthy tissue of the ovary in women of childbearing age.