Exophthalmos or protrusion eye medicine denote a phenomenon in which one or both eyeballs protrude forward, and often also shifted sideways. The disease is triggered primarily, a significant increase in orbital tissues caused by various factors which act. The people exophthalmos often called Popeye. This pathology is very common among both sexes at any age.
It should immediately be noted that the cause of exophthalmos are no abnormalities in the visual organs, as many believe. At the same time, the disease itself, left unattended, can cause serious complications that often fraught with problems with vision or even total loss. It is known that damage to the eye tissue, which is characteristic of exophthalmos, it is often caused by disturbances in the human immune system. In this case, as a rule, first swells adipose tissue of the orbit, and then the motor muscles. This phenomenon usually affects both eyes, although initially may appear on only one.
Other common causes of exophthalmos include:
- Inflammation of the blood vessels of the eye;
- Inflammation of the lacrimal gland;
- Inflammation of adipose tissue eyes;
- Varicose veins ophthalmic;
- Tumors of the sockets;
- Congenital glaucoma;
- Paralysis of the external muscles of the eye;
- Various injuries, provoking bleeding behind the eyeball.
All of the above causes exophthalmos have a local character.
Often, however, the disease is caused by factors such as the general:
- Inflammation in the sinuses;
- Graves' disease;
- Malformations of the skull;
- Some blood diseases, and so on. D.
Exophthalmos can manifest itself in different ways and have different degrees of severity. For some people, it is almost imperceptible and determined only after a special examination by a specialist. In others the disease is pronounced, and a glance to detect the presence of characteristic features. In these grave circumstances the disease can lead to all sorts of complications.
For example, in addition to the displacement of the eyeball, it is often observed violation of the mobility of the eye, as is often accompanied by exophthalmos affected muscles responsible for it. Double vision and strabismus - also characteristic symptoms of this disease. With a significant displacement of the eyeballs forward the contact between the upper and lower eyelid becomes practically impossible. Thus, the eye cornea proptosis when deprived of their natural protection does not obtain the necessary moisture. This process leads to a gradual deformation of the cornea and destruction of its structure, which contributes to inflammation.
The most dangerous complication of exophthalmos can be called a compression of the optic nerve, which is triggered by a shift apple and increased pressure in the eye. After all, this is the optic nerve impulse to the brain. Such a condition causes a disturbance of blood flow and can lead to the death of nerve and blindness.
Diagnosis and treatment of exophthalmos
For the diagnosis of exophthalmos is most often used exophthalmometer, a study in which examined the location of human eyeballs. Special instrument used in the procedure compares the projections point corneas are reflected in the user's profile in the mirror tool. As a general rule, to obtain a clear picture of such measurements are made when looking up and down. If as a result of the survey obtained by the difference values greater than 20 mm, it is possible to speak of a man of such diseases as exophthalmos.
A detailed examination is needed to determine the shape and complexity of exophthalmos is usually carried out using magnetic resonance or computed tomography. Along with them, be sure to check the level of thyroid hormones by using laboratory tests. In addition, you should pay great attention to possible problems with the immune system, as the most common cause of the disease is an endocrine ophthalmopathy.
Treatment exophthalmus impossible without establishing a disease or problems that provoked it, because the elimination of pathology directly related to the disposal of its causes. It should be noted that even if the disease was not caused by disorders in the eye and abnormal processes in their sockets, though the treatment or surgery desirably present ophthalmologist.
Often, the disease appears the result of various inflammatory processes. In this case, as a rule, the treatment involves exophthalmos, primarily, the use of various antibacterial and anti-inflammatory drugs. In severe cases may require surgery.
Also, the operational method is suitable for the treatment of exophthalmos, corneal damage provoked or compression of the optic nerve. In the first case, a full or partial cross-linking of age, of a temporary nature, which promotes corneal proptosis. Doctors recommend that in similar situations as various ointments and gels, to help restore the corneal tissue.
By squeezing the optic nerve is most commonly used partial removal of the adipose tissue of the orbit in order to reduce pressure.
If exophthalmos a consequence of tumor orbit, must intervene oncologist who may designate radiotherapy, chemotherapy or a combination thereof. Often in such cases, surgery is needed to remove the tumor.
Therefore, at the slightest suspicion of the presence of the disease should immediately seek the advice of an experienced ophthalmologist.