Erythema (multiforme) is one of the clinical manifestations of erythema, which
polymorphic form characterized by an eruption on the skin and mucous membranes. The disease has a tendency to relapse (especially in spring and autumn) and is most common among middle-aged and young people.
The term "erythema" is used to denote similar in their clinical manifestations of rash that develop in certain infectious diseases or due to allergies to drugs. So are two main forms of erythema:
- Idiopathic (infectious-allergic);
- Symptomatic (toxic-allergic).
The symptoms of erythema
When idiopathic erythema disease begins with prodromal phenomena (malaise, weakness, subfebrile temperature, sore throat, muscles, joints), against a background of developing angina, acute respiratory disease, hypothermia. Symptomatic form of the disease manifests itself mainly after taking certain medications (antibiotics, barbiturates, sulfonamides, amidopirina), administration of vaccines and serums. In the future, the clinical picture of the disease both forms of difference does not matter.
For erythema characterized by a symmetrical skin lesions extensor surfaces (forearms, hands), face, neck, back of the feet, legs. Often in the inflammatory process involves the oral mucosa. The rash looks like spots with a diameter of 3-15 mm round shape with sharp edges bright red color, characterized by retraction of the central portion, resulting in an "ring inside the ring." The spots tend to merge to form shapes with polycyclic contours (the arcs, garlands, etc.). If erythema New rashes appear in the first days of illness and accompanied by headache, malaise, fever. The duration of the inflammatory process usually is 10-15 days and ends the recovery of patients.
Treatment of erythema
In milder forms of treatment of erythema is mainly symptomatic, in which the therapy is aimed at addressing the major signs of the disease. In this area of lesions on the applied special ointment containing adrenocortical hormones. The mucous membrane of the mouth is cleaned with a cotton swab moistened with an antiseptic solution. To reduce pain, lidocaine can be used.
In more severe cases, treatment erythema occurs using corticosteroids (prednisone 40-60 mg / day). At this dose the drug is taken for 5-7 days, then every 2-3 days the dose is reduced to 5 mg up to its complete cancellation. If you have a secondary infection antibiotic use. When attached to the disease herpes infection appointed antivirals (rimantadine, acyclovir 200 mg 3 times a day).
raid on the surface appeared erosions used applications of proteolytic enzymes (chymotrypsin, lizoamidazy), after which to accelerate epithelialization affecting skin tissue used drugs (sea buckthorn oil and rosehip karotolin, solkoseril, oil solutions of vitamins A, E.
One of the most severe forms of flow erythema called Stevens-Johnson syndrome: it is characterized by high fever, severe pain in muscles and joints, bullous lesions of the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth, genitals. Often, in the pathological process involved the respiratory mucosa, esophagus, stomach.
When the blisters on the skin surface is recommended to carry out their showdown with sterile scissors. The prognosis for timely treatment of erythema (except Stevens-Johnson syndrome) are almost always favorable.
Prevention of erythema
Prophylactic treatment of erythema performed in spring and fall (a few months before the expected relapse). To this end, action is being taken readjustment of foci of chronic infection, preventing cooling as well as the general hardening of the body. Drug prophylaxis is to receive:
- Levamisole (150 mg for 2 consecutive days, with intervals of 5 days);
- Ethacridine lactate (10-15 days 0, 05 g of 3 times / day).
When toxic-allergic form of erythema is important to avoid medications, provoking the disease.