Brief description of the disease
Typhus is classified as acute anthroponotic diseases.
It is characterized by severe intoxication of the body, fever, lesions of the cardiovascular, nervous and other vital body systems.
The causative agent of epidemic typhus rickettsia is Provatseka. It gets into the human body through the skin. First accumulation of harmful microorganisms takes place in the lymph nodes, then they enter the bloodstream and spread to other organs. The most serious complications of the disease typhus causes in the activity of the brain, adrenal glands and myocardium.
The epidemiology of infections
Carriers of epidemic typhus is infected person, and carriers - head and body lice, which multiply rapidly in unsanitary conditions
. For this reason, epidemic typhus is also known to us under the name of "war fever" because of the infection soldiers often are not able to wash, suffered for thousands of years
. The mechanism of transmission of typhus is very simple
. Lice are transferred to the body of the new vehicle and it is injected by the bite of a large number of Rickettsia, which are then more deeply rubbed into the skin by scratching itchy places
. The rapid spread of lice, and a short incubation period of the disease often leads to epidemics, however, the Russian Federation outbreaks are not registered for more than half a century
. In part, this fact explains the effective prevention of typhus
. To exert its influence and a marked increase in the quality of life of ordinary people
The symptoms of typhus and clinical picture
Epidemic typhus begins acutely. Within a few days the patient's body temperature rises to a critical level. Typhus patients feel severe headache, suffering from insomnia and constant vomiting. Sometimes they observed neuropsychiatric disorders, manifested in blackout and euphoric. The facial skin of infected people giperimirovana, pronounced vascular injection sclera. Already in the first days after the first symptoms of typhus observed in patients with heart problems. Typhus leads to hypotension, severe tachycardia, muffled heart rhythms.
On palpation of internal organs in patients with typhus is found enlarged liver and spleen. In some cases, the development of typhus accompanied by suppression of the urinary reflex. Urine is released literally a drop that gives a person great suffering and worsen his psychological condition.
At 5-6 days of illness on the skin infected people develop a characteristic rash. The most massive clusters observed it on the sides of the trunk and extremities. Severe disease contributes to the spread of lesions on the face and neck can lead to the development of meningeal syndrome. With adequate treatment of epidemic typhus cured completely within 1-2 weeks after the first symptoms.
Diagnosis of typhus
For correct diagnosis of typhus professionals use differential and laboratory methods. In the first case, the physician should be separated from the similar symptoms of typhoid symptoms of other diseases - influenza, pneumonia, measles, syphilis, meningokovoy infections and sepsis. To identify the parasites in the blood are used serological assays. One has only to note that positive results can be obtained no earlier than 2 weeks after the onset of the disease.
Since the diagnosis of typhus symptoms indicate damage to the heart, lungs and urinary tract, complications, primarily localized in these organs. The most dangerous of them - is adrenal insufficiency and infectious toxic shock. In addition, the possible development of pneumonia, embolism and thrombophlebitis.
Treatment of typhus
If any doubt about the epidemiological typhus patients are subject to immediate hospitalization. They are assigned to bed rest, which remains up until the patient is no fixed normal temperature for at least 5-6 days. Patients with typhus prescribers tetracycline and chloramphenicol. At the same time Causal treatment detoxification therapy is performed by administering infusion solutions.
Prevention of typhus
The main activities of prevention of typhus directed to the registration of cases of head lice, hospitalization of patients with fever of unknown etiology and timely serological survey. Particularly noteworthy children's groups and persons living in the dorms. In identifying typhus patients are subject to insulation disinfection and disinsectization their personal belongings.