General information about the disease
Enuresis - a spontaneous emission of urine during sleep at night (nocturnal enuresis), and daytime. The most common enuresis in children. It should be noted that the diagnosis of enuresis rightly put the manifestation of symptoms in children 4 years, because the child already has to develop skills with urge urinary retention. In normal development, 6 months, 80% of children disappearing incontinence during sleep during the day. At the age of one and a half years in 70% of cases of children such incontinence are more than sporadic (once every seven days), and involuntary urination at night, no longer occur.
It occurs in adults and enuresis. The reasons for such a deviation lie more in the physical nature of the disease than psychological: enuresis in adults is most often caused by spinal cord injuries or bladder, various diseases of the genitourinary system, attendant surgery.
There are several types of enuresis in children: a simple form, neurotic, neuropathic, endokrinopaticheskaya, epileptic, dysplastic. And well-known forms of enuresis in adults: Urgent, stress, and mixed. Each of these forms has its own clinical picture.
The clinical picture of the day and nocturnal enuresis
When a simple form of enuresis in children is rare, but permanent (2 to 5 p. A week) cases of involuntary urination in the first half of the night, during the phase of deep sleep. This form of enuresis in children is often hereditary and goes unnoticed to them without causing psychological experiences.
But the neurotic form of enuresis in children, on the contrary, gives them the emotional reactions of a negative character. The child is experiencing because of his "defect", on this basis, even suicide attempts were recorded. This form of nocturnal enuresis is rare, and it is accompanied by all sorts of neurotic symptoms - irritability, lability of the psyche, insomnia, tics, moodiness and tearfulness, anxiety. The neurotic form of enuresis in children manifests itself in waves, as depends on the emotional state of the child.
Neuropathic enuresis in children appears in the background of children's nervousness, which is innate and is formed by the changes of the nervous system, frequent colds at an early age. In this form of enuresis says sleep disorder and sleep-wakefulness. In addition, except for nocturnal enuresis in a child possibly incontinence during daytime sleep, and the number of such cases increases with colds.
Endokrinopaticheskomu enuresis tend mainly nighttime urinary incontinence with concomitant endocrinopathies - obesity, rise in temperature paroxysmal character diabetes.
Epileptic form enuresis develop epilepsy. Incontinence occurs in such a burst release of large amounts of urine. This is accompanied by twitching limbs, breath-holding, autonomic disorders.
Dysplastic enuresis is formed when organic disorders mochevyvoditelnoy control functions. This form is characterized by nocturnal enuresis incontinence during sleep during the day and faecal incontinence (fecal incontinence).
The clinical picture of enuresis in adults is as follows: Urgent expressed in the form of incontinence is called "imperative" (very strong) urge, and the patient does not even get to the toilet. Very often urination occurs suddenly, and the urge to either very short or none at all.
Stressful enuresis called during urination during physical impacts on the abdomen, which occurs as a result of pressure on the bladder. This can be running, lifting weights, even coughing and laughing. In this form of enuresis in adults is no urge to urinate.
Mixed enuresis in adults requires a patient of multiple forms of incontinence with mixed symptoms.
Separate rare form of enuresis in adults is overflow incontinence, which is associated with the violation of the outflow of urine and occurs mainly in men older with prostate diseases.
The process of treatment of enuresis in children and adults is different.
For the treatment of enuresis in children, the following methods: medical, drug-free (physiotherapy, psychotherapy, diet), modal method.
Medical technique is used primarily in cases of infection mochevyvoditelnyh ways and as part of the treatment of neurotic enuresis in children. In the first case is used for the treatment of antibiotics, while in the second case, the child is given to the effect of tranquilizers, sleeping pills (eunoktin, radedorm) - to restore the depth of sleep. In cases of resistance to these drugs give milepramin, amitriptyline, sidnokarb. Also in the medical schemes used nootropics: Phenibutum, semaks, instenon, gliatilin, piracetam, glycine. Good results in the treatment of enuresis in children is observed after making drops Adiuretin-SD - a form of artificial analogue of vasopressin - a hormone that is responsible for the allocation and absorption of free water.
Drug-free treatment for the day and nocturnal enuresis. Physical therapy is usually used in conjunction with medications. It can be laser therapy, acupuncture, music therapy and other methods of influence on the nervous system of a child suffering from enuresis.
Psychotherapy also serves as part of an integrated treatment is to correct neurotic disorders. Counseling psychologist Elena Vinogradova help deal with your problems. Find out more online psy-goal.ru.
Diet therapy - is to develop a daily menu with a limited fluid intake.
Regime method for the treatment of enuresis in children. This method is a set of measures implemented by the child's parents in the home: the establishment of a special diet and sleep.
For the treatment of enuresis in adults apply medical, non-pharmacological methods and operations.
Drug treatment of enuresis using antidepressants and antispasmodic drugs are used primarily for the treatment of urgent forms of incontinence.
Drug-free treatment of enuresis in adults is to perform exercises for the pelvic muscles, bladder training.
Surgery is practiced primarily for the treatment of enuresis in adults in the form of stress and overflow incontinence.
Preventing daytime and nocturnal enuresis
To prevent the occurrence of enuresis in children necessary to carry out the following recommendations:
1. Timely give up diapers (from two years);
2. Control child fluid intake during the day (including temperature and time of the year indoors, outdoors);
3. Teach the child how to care for the sexual organs, to monitor their implementation;
4. Promptly treat urinary tract infections.
Prevention of enuresis in adults is also timely elimination of various diseases of the genitourinary system, possibly limiting excessive exercise, adherence to safety regulations at work or rest - in order to avoid injuries of the spine and pelvis.