Enterocolitis called inflammatory bowel disease. This term has two components - enteritis, or inflammation of the small intestine, and colitis or inflammation of the colon. Since the entire intestine is communicating tube, as a rule, there is no isolated or insulated colitis enteritis, as a process that began in the same department, will inevitably apply to the other. In the early stages of the disease, however, there may be limited enteritis, colitis and limited, but the treatment is not of great importance, since the complex therapeutic measures aimed at the treatment of enterocolitis in general.
Enterocolitis most common disease of the gastro-intestinal tract is particularly common in children enterocolitis. Perhaps there is no person who would not experience symptoms of enterocolitis on itself in an acute form. This is what is called "stomach flu" or "stale food poisoning."
The reasons are many enterocolitis. Often an infection enters the body with poor quality or contaminated food utensils, hands, water. Enterocolitis in children most often it is bacterial, and arise from the violation of the rules of hygiene as the child himself (licking dirty fingers, eating unwashed vegetables) and its environment (widespread outbreaks of enterocolitis in institutions due to violation of the rules of cooking) .
The cause of enterocolitis may be any factors that violate the activity of the intestine, from mechanical (refined food, leading to constipation and the stagnation in the intestinal mucosa) to toxic (eg, poisoning drugs).
By the nature of the flow recovered acute and chronic enterocolitis.
As location is isolated, localized or generalized form:
About the origin of the following types enterocolitis:
- Infectious bacterial origin caused by an intestinal infection: pathogenic strains of E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio cholerae, staphylococcus, etc. Staphylococcal enterocolitis in newborn children and infants are most common;
- Infectious parasitic origin. Pathogens amoebic dysentery, intestinal worms of all kinds, trichomonas, giardia, etc. cause parasitic enterocolitis;
- Enterocolitis, which developed as a result of dysbiosis. One of the most frequent types of colitis;
- Toxic enterocolitis. This group of diseases caused by a hit on the intestinal mucosa of toxic substances, drugs, poisons, including those contained in substandard foods;
- Mechanical enterocolitis caused by trauma to the intestinal mucosa, as a rule, an injury is inflicted sealed stagnant feces for chronic constipation;
- Nutritional enterocolitis resulting from the permanent grave errors of power, unbalanced diet;
- Secondary enterocolitis, emerges as a symptom of another underlying disease. For example, enterocolitis accompanying cholecystitis, which is formed as a result of violations of the outflow of bile.
The symptoms of enterocolitis
The symptoms of enterocolitis in the acute form: diarrhea, cutting pain in the abdomen, nausea and sometimes vomiting.
Diarrhea may be from 2-3 (enteritis) to 10 times a day or more (colitis). With infectious enterocolitis symptoms of intoxication accompany the disease: fever (38 ° C or higher), chills, weakness, headache.
Acute enterocolitis in children may be accompanied by a significant deterioration of general condition, up to the loss of consciousness and seizures, as in children comes quickly dehydration and more pronounced intoxication.
Chronic enterocolitis has similar symptoms, but in a less pronounced form, and more diverse. As with the acute form of the disease, chronic enterocolitis is characterized primarily by a violation of the chair. Most often it is diarrhea, or diarrhea alternating with constipation, less constipation. Abdominal pain is also present but less sharp is usually amplified before defecation pain.
Symptoms of chronic enterocolitis always accompanied by signs of dyspepsia: nausea, belching, flatulence, digestive disorders as a result of in-depth features. Suffers as general condition, skin become unhealthy pale gray color, nails become brittle, dull hair, there are fatigue, weakness, poor concentration, memory and sleep. In this state, the patient is exposed to various infectious diseases, as reduced immunity.
Enterocolitis diagnosis is usually straightforward and is carried out mainly in order to clarify the causes of the disease and to exclude other causes of acute abdomen in the case of acute enterocolitis.
Diagnosis is based on the study of the symptoms of enterocolitis (anamnesis), laboratory tests of blood and stool (coprogram) and instrumental investigations intestine.
The most informative are colonoscopy (endoscopic method for the study of the intestinal mucosa, it helps determine colitis) and X-rays of the intestines using a radiopaque substance.
Treatment of enterocolitis
The approach to the treatment of chronic and acute enterocolitis is somewhat different.
Treatment of acute enterocolitis is primarily in the creation of peace for the affected intestine and replenishing fluid loss. To that end, appoint a hungry pause at least for a day, during which the patient is asked to drink plenty of pure non-carbonated water and sweet tea. At the end of the day, while reducing the symptoms of enterocolitis, a liquid is added to the diet of rice or oatmeal, then white bread croutons. After gradually added new products, preferring light pureed thermally processed foods. In order to stop diarrhea can be used antidiarrheal agents such as Immodium or Smecta, but only on prescription. In remission treatment of enterocolitis in the acute form it is to restore the normal intestinal flora, which are appointed by probiotics and prebiotics.
Treatment of enterocolitis infection requires antimicrobial or antiparasitic agents, who are appointed after the detection of the pathogen.
Treatment of chronic enterocolitis is to eliminate the causes of the disease. Eliminates the infectious agent, if any is found, treatment and return to normal diet, the diet is appointed, the error correction power. So how often chronic enterocolitis caused by another, primary disease, are taking steps to treat it. In the case of the treatment of chronic enterocolitis it is also important to eliminate the always accompanying goiter, which are appointed by the prebiotics and probiotics.
Treatment of enterocolitis in children often requires hospitalization because of high risk of the disease to the child's body.