General characteristics of the disease
Occlusive disease (the most common synonym for "occlusive disease") - is a serious steadily progressive disease of the arteries, leading to a complete closure of the lumen, blood circulation in the affected organ and develop gangrene. Most often it affects the blood vessels endarteriit feet. Symptoms most often appear endarteriita men young and middle-aged who abuse tobacco. Treatment endarteriita effectively only in the early stages of the disease, with a deep tissue damage and gangrene shows amputation.
Causes of endarteritis
Nature obliterating endarteritis is not fully installed. Most doctors believe that the development of endarteritis of lower extremities guilty autoimmune antibodies that cause inflammation of the walls of the arteries, resulting in the developing connective tissue and the vessel lumen narrows. Inflammation and sclerosis affect the fatty tissue surrounding the vessels. Connective tissue compresses the artery outside, which further exacerbates the situation.
In addition, it sets the connection of obliterating endarteritis with chronic poisoning of the body with nicotine and other poisons, mental stress and regular hypothermia feet.
Occlusive disease - symptoms of the disease
Patients endarteritis of lower extremities pay attention to the following symptoms:
- Periodically arising feeling cold snap legs
- The feeling of "pins and needles"
- Excessive sweating of the lower extremities
- Pale and dry skin Foot
- Fragility and blue toe nails
- Fatigue when walking
- Spasms and pain when walking, and later alone
- A reduction in the arterial pulsation rear foot
- Edema of the lower extremities
- The formation of leg ulcers
Intermittent claudication - a key symptom endarteriita
Sick obliterating endarteritis can be found on the street on a particular gait. These patients are stopping a few steps. This is due to the fact that due to lack of oxygen to the tissues of vasoconstriction in the calf muscles spasm develops and there is severe pain.
After stopping the muscles need more oxygen decreases, blood flow is improved, spasms disappear and the pain goes away. But should a person who has endarteritis, start moving, all repeated again.
For obliterating endarteritis characterized by progressive cycling during alternating periods of exacerbation and remission. It identified a number of development phases.
- Phase degeneration of nerve endings. It is characterized by the development of degenerative processes in the nerve endings that correspond to the vessels. Vessel lumen narrows slightly, nutrition of tissues does not change, as the system of collateral circulation. In this phase the symptoms endarteriita still do not appear, but the disease is progressing.
- Phase spasm of large vessels. The artery narrows, the system of collateral circulation can not cope with the increased workload, and symptoms such as cold extremities, fatigue and intermittent claudication. Endarteritis Treatment usually begins in this stage of the disease.
- Phase proliferation of connective tissue. Due to the progressive development of connective tissue in all layers of the vessel wall and vascular tissue appear around onychalgias alone and reduced ripple on the arteries. This is - an advanced stage endarteritis of lower extremities.
- Phase complete obliteration of vessels or thrombosis. This - the stage outcome obliterating endarteritis. As a result of these processes in the developing limb irreversible consequences - soft tissue necrosis and gangrene.
In the later stages of the disease characteristic vascular changes can be found in all the internal organs, including the heart and brain.
Diagnosis endarteritis of lower extremities
Once symptoms endarteritis, should consult a doctor - a surgeon. With the help of modern methods of research the doctor can make the correct diagnosis and prescribe treatment. For the diagnosis endarteriita used bulk sphygmography (measurement ripple), Doppler ultrasound, rheovasography and radiopaque research vessels of the lower extremities.
Occlusive disease - a disease for which treatment of modern medicine is not enough means and methods. At the moment it is impossible to achieve the return of the connective tissue, can only slow down the process of its formation and alleviate the patient's condition.
A prerequisite treating endarteritis is a complete rejection of the patient from smoking and alcohol as these substances contribute to prolonged spasm of blood vessels and aggravate the condition.
The patient endarteritis not shown a special diet, however, should not overeat because overweight puts additional load on the lower limbs. Overweight patients lose weight is recommended, and for this to reduce the daily calorie intake and eliminate the flour, fatty and sweet foods.
If endarteritis of lower limbs is useful to move a lot, on the day you need to walk at least an hour, in spite of the attacks of intermittent claudication. If you experience pain to stop and wait until it subsides completely. On the benefit will go cycling and swimming in the water with a temperature not lower than 22-24 degrees.
The patient endarteritis need to monitor hygienic condition feet - before going to bed to wash them with warm soapy water, wipe dry and lubricated with fat cream.
If these methods do not help the symptoms endarteriita grow, and the patient's condition is getting worse, we have to resort to surgical methods of treatment endarteriita:
- Sympathectomy - removal of the sympathetic trunk in the boundary of the second and third lumbar ganglia, leading to pareticheski expansion of collateral vessels and improve blood supply to the limb.
- Bypass - the creation of a vascular anastomosis bypass artery lesion. It - one of the most effective treatments endarteritis.
- Trombintimektomiya - removal of a blood clot that blocks a vessel affected endarteritis, with abnormally proliferating intima (inner lining of arteries).
- Amputation of limbs - this is an extreme measure is carried out in cases where the outcome of obliterating endarteritis developing soft tissue necrosis and gangrene of the extremities, as well as the patient constantly plagued by unbearable pain.
To avoid this unfortunate outcome, you need timely access to a doctor, a thorough compliance with all of its recommendations, and maintaining a healthy lifestyle.