Brief description of the disease
Encephalopathy - a pathological brain damage due to loss of nerve cells that is caused by a violation of the blood supply and oxygen deficiency of brain tissue.
Encephalopathy is not a separate disease, it is - the team concept, which means a variety of pathological conditions and diseases. Encephalopathy can occur in both adults and children.
There are congenital and acquired encephalopathy.
Congenital encephalopathy occurs due to the action of damaging factors in childbirth, genetic defects or developmental abnormalities of the brain. Causes of congenital encephalopathy may be birth defects and brain hypoxia. Congenital encephalopathy, also known as perinatal.
As mentioned above, perinatal encephalopathy often arises and develops as a result of pathological conditions during pregnancy or childbirth. For perinatal encephalopathy include damage and pathological conditions of the brain that occur in the time interval from 28 weeks of pregnancy to 7 days of life.
Risk factors for perinatal encephalopathy are premature and late delivery, multiple pregnancy, a pregnant woman receiving certain medications, placental abruption, complications during birth, maternal age (less than 20 years or older than 40).
Symptoms of congenital encephalopathy newborn is restless behavior, frequent crying, inadequate reaction to light and sound, tilting the head, bulging eyes, frequent regurgitation. Symptoms of perinatal encephalopathy can be determined even in the hospital. A child with this pathology is a breach of the heartbeat, weak or late cry, no sucking reflex.
If the symptoms of brain damage are felt immediately, but over a fairly long period, then talk about residual encephalopathy. This pathology occurs sometime after perinatal encephalopathy.
To diagnose residual encephalopathy in some cases quite difficult, because the symptoms of perinatal pathology rather short-lived, and relapse may occur after a long period of time. Trigger a relapse residual encephalopathy may or infectious inflammatory diseases, high blood pressure, head injury.
Acquired encephalopathy - developed in the postnatal period. There are several types of acquired encephalopathy.
Post-traumatic encephalopathy - is caused by craniocerebral injury.
Toxic encephalopathy - is due to effects on the neurotropic and bacterial toxins.
Radiation encephalopathy - occurs due to exposure to ionizing radiation brain.
Metabolic encephalopathy - occur in various diseases of internal organs. At the same toxic substances that are formed during disease fall into the systemic circulation and cause metabolic brain damage.
Vascular encephalopathy - is due to chronic circulatory disorders of the brain.
Encephalopathy - is due to pathological changes in the brain tissue due to cerebrovascular disorders.
There are venous, atherosclerotic, hypertensive and mixed discirculatory encephalopathy.
There are three degrees of vascular encephalopathy.
The first degree of encephalopathy is characterized by memory loss, irritability, headaches, troubled sleep.
The second degree encephalopathy has quite symptomatic. Headache becomes constant, there is memory loss, lethargy, apathy, sleep disorder.
The third degree of vascular encephalopathy characterized by severe changes in brain tissue, the symptoms are aggravated. There are paresis, vascular parkinsonism, violated it.
The symptoms of encephalopathy
The symptoms of encephalopathy - quite varied and depend on the form and stage of disease. At the initial stage there is loss of memory and performance, general fatigue, sleep disturbance, drowsiness. When viewed from a decrease in hearing and vision, muscle tone, poor coordination.
Severe brain injury leads to strong headaches, dizziness, vomiting and nausea, disorders of consciousness, paresis and various mental disorders. Later, there may be delay in the development and problems in child rearing.
Diagnosis of encephalopathy
In the diagnosis of encephalopathy are important data history.
Also used electroencephalography, computed tomography scans and nuclear magnetic resonance.
Carry out biochemical blood tests, urine and cerebrospinal fluid.
Treatment of encephalopathy
Treatment encephalopathy is directed to elimination of symptoms and treatment of the disease, which led to brain damage.
In acute severe encephalopathy using hemoperfusion, hemodialysis, mechanical ventilation, parenteral nutrition. Use medications that reduce intracranial pressure and prevent the development of seizures. Also prescribe drugs that improve blood circulation of the brain.
Additional treatment of encephalopathy involves the use of physical therapy and acupuncture, breathing exercises.