Effusion - a pathological condition characterized by the accumulation of a biological fluid in a body cavity
. Effusion is a symptom of inflammation or excess blood in the internal organs or tissues, and treatment should be directed at eliminating the underlying disease.
Pleural effusion is accompanied by chest pain and shortness of breath. This accumulation of these fluids in the pleural cavity:
- Blood. Hemothorax may be due to chest injuries, aortic aneurysm, or blood coagulation disorders;
- Pus. Empyema is a complication of pneumonia, esophageal rupture, abdominal abscess or surgery;
- Lymph. Chylothorax damage occurs in a variety of the main lymphatic duct blockage or when the tumor.
Diseases that can cause pleural effusion
- Injuries to the thorax;
- Heart surgery;
- heart failure;
- Pulmonary embolism;
- cirrhosis of the liver;
- rheumatoid arthritis;
- An abscess below the diaphragm;
- Systemic lupus erythematosus;
- The low protein content in the blood.
The reason could be incorrect effusion administering intravenous catheters or plastic tubes, as well as certain drugs - hydralazine, procainamide, isoniazid, phenytoin and others.
Diagnosis of accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity includes:
- Chest X-ray - reveals a liquid;
- Computed tomography - confirms the results of X-ray detects lung abscess, pneumonia or swelling;
- Ultrasound - defines the location of the least amount of pleural fluid, which facilitates its drainage doctor.
In cases where the source of pleural effusion failed to identify during these procedures, spend a puncture biopsy or bronchoscopy
. Needling allows to establish the presence of fluid in the chemical composition of fungi, bacteria and malignant cells. For this needle separated liquid simultaneously draining cavity. If the sample for the diagnosis of small, make open biopsy of the pleura - the chest and take a little cut fabric using toratoskopa. Sometimes they resort to bronchoscopy - direct visual study airway through a bronchoscope. According to statistics, 20% of the causes of effusion and can not be determined.
Depending on the severity of excess exudate fluid eliminating needle, catheter or plastic tubing connected to the drainage system.
The effusion of the knee joint
The effusion of the knee is usually caused by inflammatory diseases, trauma or excessive loading
. To determine the cause of fluid accumulation in the knee and need to analyze a sample of it. The appearance of effusion in the joint determine factors such as age, obesity, and type of activity. The risk increases after age 55, as the elderly are more common diseases of the joints. The additional load on the knees can occur in people who are overweight or professional athletes. Over time overload lead to cartilage damage, and it is - a common cause of pleural effusion.
Fluid can accumulate after bone fractures, ligament or meniscus tear, as well as in chronic diseases:
- Irregular blood clotting;
- Rheumatoid arthritis;
- Septic arthritis;
Signs are joint effusion
- Swelling. Around the patella observed swelling of tissue, which is particularly noticeable when comparing the sick and the healthy knee;
- Stiffness. Excess fluid prevents the free movement of the joint and can not completely straighten the leg;
- Pain. The effusion may limit movement. Sometimes the pain leads to the fact that people can not get to his feet.
Diagnostics is conducting a number of procedures:
- X-ray. It shows signs of arthritis, joint destruction, bone fractures;
- Ultrasound. Identify diseases of tendons and ligaments;
- Magnetic resonance imaging. Specifies the minor damage to the joints and tissues.
Invasive methods include blood analysis, aspiration and Arthroscopy. Blood tests to diagnose infectious and inflammatory diseases, concomitant effusion, such as Lyme disease or gout. Joint aspiration or artrotsentez is conducted to check the fluid accumulated in the presence of bacteria, the blood uric acid crystals and other impurities. Samples may also be taken during the inspection of the joint surface using an arthroscope, which is inserted into the joint.
Medication effusion of the knee joint is designed to eliminate its original cause, and in severe cases, surgery may consist in removing fluid or joint replacement.
Effusion in the pelvis
Effusion in the pelvis - a cluster of free liquid, which can be observed in normal
. For example, women immediately after ovulation the liquid contents of the ruptured follicle enters the space behind the uterus, and disappears after 2-3 days. This feature is used in the treatment of infertility as a kind of marker of ovulation.
The reasons may be the following effusion pathology:
- Liver disease;
- Rupture of ovarian cysts;
- Purulent salpingitis;
- ectopic pregnancy;
- Malignant tumor;
- Bleeding in the abdomen of any origin.
Diagnosis is made primarily by ultrasound. Treatment can be conservative or surgical, depending on the associated diseases.
The presence of joint effusion, pleural cavity, or in the pelvic area is an important diagnostic symptom of a variety of inflammatory disease and requires immediate treatment to the doctor.