Dysgraphia is a partial breakdown of the writing process, which is associated with the violation or incomplete formation of mental functions, responsible for monitoring and implementation of written language. This pathology manifests repetitive persistent errors in the letter, which can not be resolved on their own without any special training. Such violations are the major obstacle to the acquisition of literacy the child, so the correction dysgraphia is the necessary step to be taken by the parents as soon as possible.
Correction dysgraphia at younger schoolboys
Quite often, dysgraphia children combined with the phenomenon of dyslexia, which is manifested disorders of reading. The basis of dyslexia and attention are underdeveloped, the complexity of recognition of letters and spatial perception. Typically, dysgraphia manifested omissions of letters and syllables. This indicates that the child is not listening isolates some vowels or consonants.
If parents notice their child have similar symptoms, you should immediately start treatment pathology. Correction dysgraphia at younger schoolboys assumes, first of all, working with a child psychologist and a speech therapist. Psychologist to help the child to overcome difficulties in relations within the family and at school, and a speech therapist develops a plan of treatment of the disease. It is constructed in accordance with the mechanisms and forms of violations of the letter. If we talk about the general methods of correction dysgraphia at younger students, among them are the following the most effective:
- Solving Problems in zvukoproiznoshenija and phonemic processes;
- Work on vocabulary enrichment in primary school children;
- The emphasis on the formation of the grammatical aspects of speech;
- Development of analytical and synthetic activity;
- Classes are designed to improve the spatial and auditory perception;
- Activities that develop memory and thinking;
- The development of the motor areas;
- Activities to improve the coherent speech;
- Writing exercises to reinforce your skills.
In addition, when the correction dysgraphia at younger schoolboys often prescribe a course of drug therapy, and certain kinds of rehabilitation treatment. Among the latter are most often used physiotherapy, hydrotherapy and massage treatments.
Optical correction dysgraphia
Experts are several types of dysgraphia:
- Articular-speaker, in which there are violations zvukoproiznoshenija, phonemic perception and articulation;
- Acoustic, which is characterized by problems with phonemic recognition;
- Agrammaticheskuyu due to insufficient development of lexical and grammatical aspects of speech;
- Dysgraphia associated with problems of language analysis and synthesis;
- The optical pointing to violations of visual-spatial representations.
The latter type is characterized by instability of visual impressions, resulting in a specific error, when not recognized individual letters and unusual fonts. Such misperceptions expressed by mixing the letters when writing.
EV Mazanova in his book "optical correction dysgraphia" to treat the disease suggests carrying out remedial work on speech therapy, according to the main directions:
- Expanding the scope of the visual memory of the child;
- Mastering the graphic symbolization;
- Development of visual perception, analysis and synthesis;
- The development of auditory analysis and synthesis;
- Development of visual gnosis (learning colors, sizes and shapes);
- Formation of the temporal and spatial concepts;
- Formation grafomotornyh skills;
- Differentiation of letters which are kinetic and optical similarity.
Optical correction dysgraphia involves a number of different exercises that contribute to the above-mentioned areas. For example, for the development of visual gnosis experts recommend naming the contour, crossed out and superimposed images of objects, as well as the additional drawings. To improve color perception practice exercises such as the naming of colors in the picture, grouping them by color or shades of background, shading of different geometric shapes in specific colors for the job.
Correction dysgraphia at Mazanova also includes exercises on recognition of letters. Thus, it is possible to offer a child find a particular letter among several others, to determine the letters are arranged correctly identify the letters superimposed, and so on. D.
The next step is the development of visual memory and spatial perception. In this case, the correction dysgraphia at Mazanova, conducted exercises such as memorizing pictures or objects, their location and the playback after a certain time. Spatial orientation also requires several types of orientation:
- In his own body (including the differentiation of left and right sides);
- In the outside world;
- On a sheet of paper.
Mazanova correction dysgraphia also recommends pay great attention to the differentiation of the letters, which includes an isolated writing them:
- The syllables;
- In the words;
- In the phrase;
- The proposals;
- in the text.
Correction dysgraphia and dyslexia
Correction dysgraphia and dyslexia usually divided into 4 basic stages:
The first stage of correction dysgraphia and dyslexia involves identifying these disorders in children through dictation, surveys the state of the lexical and grammatical aspects of speech and the analysis of its results.
The second stage is aimed at the overall development of the manual motor skills, spatial and temporal concepts, memory and thinking.
For the third stage of correction dysgraphia and dyslexia is characterized by overcoming disgraficheskih violations. Work in this case is realized mainly on the syntactic, lexical and phonetic levels and often aimed at addressing the problems connected with speech, reading and zvukoproiznoshenija.
The last step methodology designed to evaluate the results of the correction dysgraphia and dyslexia, so it is usually carried out re-inspection skills of reading and writing, as well as an analysis of all kinds of written works of children.