Brief description of the disease
Echinococcosis - a chronic helminth disease caused by tapeworm ekinokokkom. They suffer not only people but also animals. Most often, echinococcosis infection occurs after contact with dogs or during shearing. Features of the mechanism of transmission of infection is determined ubiquity. In our country it is found in all regions, but the largest number of cases detected in areas with well-developed animal husbandry.
Infectious agents and mechanisms of disease development
Tapeworms are parasites in the intestines of sheep, dogs and rodents. There they lay their eggs, which then fall into the environment with animal feces. Helminth eggs penetrate the human body under conditions of poor personal hygiene, and the required level of sanitation in the diagnosis of hydatid disease and symptoms of infection may occur in many different organs. The main danger of echinococcosis is that blood worms are spread all vital systems and turn into Finns - cysts, which takes place the final formation of the parasite. As soon as the growing pathogens echinococcosis, Finns are also increasing in size and begin to compress the surrounding tissue, disrupting the normal functioning of organs. In most cysts are found in the liver (hepatic echinococcosis) and lung. Sometimes they affect the brain.
As hydatid disease manifests itself, the symptoms of the disease
In most cases, hydatid disease runs completely asymptomatic. Often a situation where hydatid disease detected in children and adults is possible only if preventive radiological and ultrasound. If the worms are progressing to the stage of cysts, they begin to compress the adjacent organs and tissues. At this stage, the symptoms of echinococcosis appear more clearly. The patient has different symptoms depending on the localization Finn. So, for example, hydatid disease of the liver is accompanied by:
- pain in the right upper quadrant;
- feeling of heaviness in the right part of the body;
- pressure on the liver;
- constant malaise;
- rapid fatigue even at low physical activity;
- reduction of motor activity;
- allergic reactions (manifested not always);
- yellowing of the skin.
The pulmonary form of echinococcosis leads to chest pain, coughing, shortness of breath. If a person develops symptoms of hydatid disease of the brain have a neurological nature. Most often patients suffer from paralysis, paresis, seizures and mental disorders.
Diagnosis of echinococcosis
The presence of worms in the human body is confirmed with the imaging laboratory studies. Typically, doctors use this X-ray, MRI, CT and ultrasound. Earlier, along with the above methods applied and needle biopsy of the cyst, but today it is considered dangerous, as can occur during the procedure parasites spread into the surrounding tissues and organs. Also, for the diagnosis of echinococcosis immunological methods are not used, due to their low informative.
Treatment of echinococcosis
Selection of methods of treatment of echinococcosis depends on localization of helminths, general condition of the patient and the clinical picture of infection. In most cases, the decision on surgery, of course, if it does not threaten the patient's life. During the operation, carried out the removal of the cyst followed by suturing the cavity remaining after the recess formation.
Prevention of echinococcosis
When prevention echinococcosis should observe the following rules:
- Do not allow young children to play with the dogs;
- wash hands after working in the garden, before eating, after skinning sheep and skinning animals;
- regularly carry out preventive examinations of domestic dogs, register them in veterinary clinics;
- handle food before eating;
- do not drink unboiled water from open reservoirs and urban water supply system;
- spend slaughtered cattle in specially designated areas;
- If your work involves animals, you should be tested regularly for hydatid disease.
As you can see, the rules are really simple, but their implementation will prevent not only the hydatid disease, and many other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.