Motor, in which there is constant or spasmodic contraction of the muscles, forcing the patient to forcibly take the abnormal posture and play involuntary movements, called dystonia.
The cause of the disease appears a violation of the interaction between activation and relaxation of the muscles due to which there is uncontrolled and involuntary contraction of individual muscles and entire groups.
Modern medicine can not yet answer the question of why there is a violation of this interaction, so definitely say about the causes of dystonia syndrome is impossible. Specific electrophysiological, biochemical, pathological and other diagnostic markers for the disease has not.
According to statistics, dystonia syndrome affects about 1% of the total world population. Moreover, the disease occurs in women at times more often than men.
The forms of dystonia
The etiological classification of the disease in our time is not yet fully developed, basically it includes 4 sections, but some sources you can find even a fifth form of the disease - psevdodistoniyu. It is understood as a syndrome that occurs on a background of diseases that may resemble dystonia, but in fact it is not (Sandifer syndrome, Isaacs, etc.)
There are primary and secondary dystonia - the first is not associated with other neurological disorders, the second is developing against tissue damage of the brain and spinal cord, peripheral nerves and the resulting effects of the environment.
Primary dystonia may occur in childhood and in adulthood, it is a group of hereditary diseases that can be transmitted in an autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, or X-linked pattern of inheritance, and combined with tremor, parkinsonism, or moikloniey.
Secondary dystonia may be due to hereditary metabolic diseases, trauma, carbon monoxide poisoning, stroke, or subdural hematoma.
On the basis of the prevalence of medicine are the following forms of dystonia syndrome:
- Segmental - in which the symptoms of dystonia seen in two adjacent parts of the body;
- Focal - Disease occurs in any one part of the body is designated by the affected region syndrome (cranial, axial, cervical, etc.);
- Generalized - in which the patient has the opportunity to weaken the corrective gestures involuntary movements;
- Gemidistoniyu - a manifestation of the syndrome is made up of kruralnoy and brachial dystonia on one side of the body;
- Multifocal - in this form of dystonia symptoms distributed in two or more not adjacent to each other in the body.
In turn, the focal dystonia is divided into the following forms:
- Writer's cramp;
On etymological grounds emit a form of the disease as Dystonia-plus, which is understood as the union of a group of diseases not related to the primary and secondary forms.
Symptoms of dystonia
The clinical manifestations of the syndrome depends on the etiology of the disease. Thus dystonia symptoms, depending on the site of the lesion, are:
- STOP - pronounced bending of the toes, extension and tucking limbs;
- Brushes - bending with hyperextension of fingers;
- Neck and torso - the rotational movement;
- FACIAL REGION - protruding tongue zazhmurivanie eyes, forced closing or opening of the mouth, lips stretch.
Symptoms of dystonia are also states in which the patient takes disabling unnatural posture. In all cases these symptoms disappear completely in the relaxation during sleep.
Diagnosis of Dystonia
Diagnose the primary form of the disease can only be clinically recognize the signs of secondary dystonia can be only after the testimony of a wide range of research.
In many cases, it requires genetic examinations, cytological and biochemical analysis of biopsy tissue, biochemical studies and other paraclinical diagnostic methods.
It also requires a detailed survey of the patient by the physician, as it greatly increases the chances of adequate clinical diagnosis of the disease.
Treatment of dystonia
When the disease is applied medical or surgical treatment. Initially, the hospital checked the body's response to treatment of dystonia levodopa or dopamine receptor agonists. If it is negative, is applied anticholinergics, carbamazepine, benzodiazepines, baclofen and sustained action.
Treatment to test various drugs should be carried out regularly to accurately determine whether such treatment has the desired effect. Application of the test drug treatment of dystonia in childhood should last at least six months as a therapeutic effect in this group of patients may not be immediately apparent.
Surgical treatment of dystonia is a stereotactic thalamotomy or pallidotomy, which are used only in the most severe cases. Focal dystonia is treated with the help of the local administration in the muscles involved in hyperkinesis, botulinum toxin every two to four months. Side effects associated with this form of treatment are minimized.
Under dystonia understand motor neurological disorder, because of which occur spasmodic or persistent muscle contractions that cause a person to take an unnatural posture and play uncontrolled movements of different body parts. The disease requires careful clinical diagnosis with a series of analyzes and studies, as well as the appointment of an adequate medical or surgical treatment.