Dyslexia - a common problem in children education, exhibits specific reading disorder. The disease is a neurological nature and is characterized by the inability of a person quickly and correctly recognize words, and learn the skills of spelling.
Classification of dyslexia
The classification of dyslexia are different criteria. So, depending on the operations of reading disturbed, secrete agrammaticheskuyu, semantic, optical, amnestic, tactile and phonemic dyslexia.
Agrammaticheskaya form of the disease is associated with hypoplasia of the grammatical structure of speech, syntactic and morphological generalizations. It is characterized by changes in the number of nouns and pronouns, case endings, incorrect matching adjectives and nouns, verbs, incorrect use of the 3rd person past tense. It is more common in patients suffering from systemic underdevelopment of speech.
Semantic dyslexia manifests itself in violation of reading comprehension of words and sentences in the technically correct reading. This is due to two main factors: the lack of clarity of ideas about the nature of syntactic relations and the difficulties of synthesis of sounds and syllables.
If you have problems that are related to the assimilation and mixing similar letters speak of optical dyslexia. Thus miscible letters may be very similar and differ only in one element, for example, M and L, or consist of the same type, but different parts arranged in the space, and both T and R T or L.
Mnemonic form of the disease manifests itself in the event that difficulties associated with the assimilation of all the letters. It is due to the fact that the child has violated the processes linking specific sound and the corresponding letter.
At the blind and visually impaired children have dyslexia tactile, the cause of which was unclear tactile perception.
Phonemic dyslexia common among schoolchildren, and is characterized by the fact that they are 2-4 years old can not learn to read properly. Some students hardly learn the letters and do not know how to put them into words and syllables, the other children learn them easily, but when reading make many mistakes, because for them the letter is not a generalized graphic sign (grapheme). According to the author presented classification of dyslexia is caused by poor phonemic hearing.
Thus, semantic, and phonemic agrammaticheskaya dyslexia are due unformed speech functions and the optical, tactile and mnemonic - due to the underdevelopment of mental functions.
Symptoms of dyslexia
The characteristic symptoms of dyslexia, dyslexics are facing, include the following problems:
- The delay in development;
- Spatial disorientation;
- Misunderstanding read;
- The difficulties with the assimilation of words and perceptions of the information;
- Clumsiness, poor coordination.
Also worth noting are some other symptoms of dyslexia, not related to mental development:
- Poor reading skills at a high level of intelligence;
- Repeating the mistakes that arise in the process of reading or writing;
- Failure to perform the task for the time devoted to it;
- Difficulties in the letter;
- Poor memory;
- Difficulties with the definition of right and left sides, top and bottom.
Treatment and correction of dyslexia
In the treatment of dyslexia individual approach it is important. Each patient selected special program correction. Due to such a course suffers from a disease master the skills of reading and feel much more confident in a variety of fields. Among the methods for correction of dyslexia can be identified oral work, the use of a variety of technical means, as well as alternative ways of learning.
Often the disorder remains a challenge for life at the same time often there are cases of the development of reading skills. However, an adequate level of literacy of a certain part of dyslexics never reaches.
Features of treatment of dyslexia is that the adjustment is subject to the entire educational process, including indirect and direct skills training allocation of the individual components and word recognition. Direct teaching - is the use of special phonetic methods, regardless of the process of development of reading skills, the indirect - the introduction of these methods directly into the training program. This approach to the process may be different: a sequential study of sounds, words and sentences, or learning to read words and expressions in general.
When correcting dyslexia is important to use approaches that involved several senses (sight, hearing, touch). In this regard, useful for the child is mastering the computer.
The use of other methods of treating dyslexia (e.g., perceptual or optometric training), and drug therapy have proven effectiveness, and therefore their use is not recommended.
If you suspect dyslexia, and in the case of any violation of speech is necessary to consult a doctor, a speech therapist.