Dysentery - a disease of dirty hands
Dysentery - an acute or chronic infection, which occurs with symptoms of intoxication and affects mainly the large intestine of man. The disease can have both acute and chronic. The causative agent of dysentery in children and adults - different types of E. coli, which penetrate into the body during the consumption of contaminated food or contact with the sick person. The spread of dysentery promote unsanitary conditions and failure to comply with basic rules of personal hygiene. Because of this, dysentery had aptly titled - "disease of dirty hands".
The causative agent of dysentery
The infection is caused by different types of dysentery sticks. Generally, the most active forms of Sonne and Flexner, who settle in the folds of the colon. In the external environment with the causative agent of dysentery stool falls sick man. Bacteria tend to accumulate in various food and water. The spread of the disease contributes to low sanitary culture of the population, poor personal hygiene, and later treatment in medical institutions. Often detected dysentery in children, especially in the first two years of life, due to the curiosity of kids and a habit "to drag in the mouth" any objects came to hand.
Once in the human stomach, some of the bacteria are killed. The rest of the agents of dysentery penetrate into the intestine, where their metabolic products cause a necrotic and inflammatory processes. When the diagnosis of dysentery symptoms associated with poisoning organism poisonous toxins that are absorbed walls of the colon and rectum, enter the bloodstream and cause general intoxication. The most difficult is poisoning carry small children and the elderly, whose immune system is not strong enough to effectively counter the poisonous substances.
Dysentery - symptoms
The incubation period is 2-3 days dysentery, but in some cases the first symptoms of the disease may occur within a few hours after eating contaminated food. The main symptoms of dysentery include:
- diarrhea with mucus and inclusions of blood clots;
- tenesmus - false urge to empty;
- nausea, vomiting;
- loss of appetite;
- general weakness, fatigue;
Dysentery begins acutely. Initially the patients feel a light fever and loss of appetite, but then to join these manifestations of blunt abdominal pain and signs of toxicity, which can range from mild (minor seizures) to severe conditions accompanied by confusion and neurological disorders. Different and the frequency of acts of defecation - from 2-3 times per day to almost incessant diarrhea. As I mentioned above, in parts of the chair dysentery in adults often accompanied by dehydration.
Children dysentery develops a little differently. In infants the disease is often characterized by asymptomatic, but lasts much longer than in adults. If dehydration is accompanied by improper diet and inadequate treatment of dysentery, in the future child may suffer from dystrophy. In children older than one year usually develops enterokoliticheskaya dysentery. Symptoms of dysentery typical food intoxication, manifested quite sharply and observed for 7-8 days. To confirm the presence of pathogenic bacteria in the gut used bacteriological tests of stool child.
Dysentery - treatment of the disease
In the treatment of dysentery plays an important role adherence to a strict diet. From a standard diet of patients excluded foods rich in fiber, which irritates the intestine. Eating infected people are given in the thoroughly boiled and mashed form. Recommended soups, dairy-free porridge, soufflés and meatballs, and the number of meals increases while reducing the single portion of food. Since dysentery in children and adults making major adjustments in the activity of the gastrointestinal tract, the diet should be followed for several weeks after recovery.
Antimicrobials used for moderate to severe forms of dysentery. Note that prescribe certain medicines should only be a qualified physician with all the indications and contraindications. In dysentery in children are usually prescribed ampicillin, in severe - aminoglycosides, and rifampicin. In addition, in the first hours of the disease should begin oral rehydration therapy, which aims to restore the water-salt balance. If dysentery is characterized by a prolonged course, it is advisable to use tools that increase immunity.
In the treatment of dysentery is of great importance and the restoration of normal intestinal microflora. Typically, for the treatment of dysentery in children and adults use bacterial preparations - bifikol and bifidumbakterin. To normalize intestinal activity used astringents, antispasmodics and herbal teas in the age dosages.