The consequence of insufficient supply of the nerves of the vocal apparatus, which leads to the defeat of the subcortical regions of the brain and zadnelobnyh is a violation of pronunciation, called dysarthria in medicine. This speech disorder tend to both adults and children, and in the latter leads to the infringement of zvukoproiznoshenija and problems followed by learning to read and write.
To help cope with dysarthria in children can doctor and speech therapist, and recognize the disease is quite simple on the following grounds:
- This baby-oiled and deaf;
- Often the pronunciation of sounds and words inherent nasal tone;
- It seems as if the kid says to "mouthful".
Bulbar and pseudobulbar dysarthria in children, as well as dysphonia and dysphagia, are signs of bulbar or pseudobulbar palsy.
Form of dysarthria in children
Depending on the location of brain damage, there are the following forms of dysarthria in children and adults:
- Cortical - is caused by lesions of the cortex of the brain that are associated with the function of articulation muscles. It differs from other types of dysarthria in adults and children is to maintain the correct structure of words, accompanied by disorder pronunciation of syllables;
- Bulbar - is a consequence of peripheral paresis and paralysis of the muscles of articulation caused the defeat of the hypoglossal, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves and their nuclei. It is accompanied by disorders of swallowing;
- Pseudobulbar dysarthria in children - a prerequisite for the emergence of the disorder are hitting the motor cortical-nuclear tract, because of what the developing central paralysis, whose connection with the central nervous system provide a wandering, glossopharyngeal and hypoglossal nerve. A manifestation of the disorder is the monotony of a child's speech;
- Extrapyramidal - can be caused by the defeat of the basal ganglia, and their neural connections. Characterized disorder slurred speech slurred and tinged with nasal dramatically impaired prosody, pace and intonation and melodic structure of pronunciation;
- Parkinson - is the kind of extrapyramidal dysarthria in children and adults with Parkinson's disease. It appears inexpressive disorder, in violation of the modulation of voice, slow speech;
- Cerebellar - a prerequisite for the emergence of this form of dysarthria in children can be both cerebellar and its pathways. To recognize the disorder in a child can be stretched on, with varying volume and modulation violation chanted speech;
- Cold - manifested by lowering the room temperature or the pronunciation of words in the cold, in the form of articulation difficulties;
- Sturt dysarthria in children - is a violation of pronunciation hissing and whistling sounds like a side lisping.
Diagnosis dysarthria in children
In order to make the correct diagnosis, the child's need to take an appointment with a psychologist, a neurologist and a speech therapist. It is also necessary to carry out a number of procedures to obtain a total picture of the disease, namely:
- Electrophysiological studies (elektroneyrografiyu, electroencephalography and electromyography);
- Transcranial magnetic stimulation;
- MRI of the brain.
Speech therapist in the diagnosis of dysarthria in children, conducting a thorough examination, which includes an assessment of existing non-speech and speech disorders. During the evaluation of non-verbal signs the doctor determines the state of voice and facial muscles, studies the structure of articulation apparatus, the nature and extent of the child's breathing articulation movements. Of particular importance in the diagnosis plays a history of speech development. When diagnosing speech therapist draws attention to:
- Articulatory aspect of speech - rhythm, tempo, prosody, sound pronunciation and intelligibility;
- Synchronicity of voice, breathing and articulation;
- Phonemic perception of the child, as well as the level of development of lexical and grammatical structure of speech.
Diagnosis writing at dysarthria in children includes the child various tasks, such as writing under dictation, copying passages from books, reading aloud and checking understanding child reading material.
In addition to visiting a neurologist and a speech therapist, the diagnosis of dysarthria in children also requires inspection of a psychologist who will conduct a study on the overall intellectual development of the child.
It is important to know that erased dysarthria in children diagnosed after the child reaches the age of 5 years. This is due to the fact that even perfectly healthy children at a younger age may occur similar to light (obliterated) dysarthria manifestations that a violation did not testify.
Treatment of dysarthria in children
In cases where the diagnosis is confirmed by a medical institution dysarthria, the child requires a comprehensive medical and pedagogical influence. Along with medication and physical therapy, speech therapy correction is carried out.
In the treatment of dysarthria in children doctor-therapist during sessions of particular importance given to the development of all sides of a child's speech - the construction of phonetic and grammatical structure of the hearing as well as the vocabulary that the baby is not faced with difficulties in learning at school.
Dysarthria in children and adults is a common disorder, which at early detection and correction of treatable. Unlike adults, the child is accompanied by the collapse of the dysarthria of speech, it's hard to learn to read and write, which is why there are difficulties during subsequent school years. Great importance is visiting a speech therapist, who, after an accurate diagnosis can help to correct this violation, to further the child's life was normal.