Drowning - a kind of mechanical asphyxia, which occurs as a result of filling the lungs with fluid. Time and nature of death in the water depends on external factors and the condition of the body. Approximately 70,000 people worldwide die each year from drowning. In general, victims stayut young men and children.
Risk factors are intoxicated, possession of human heart disease, spinal cord injury while diving headfirst. Also cause drowning could be sudden changes in temperature, fatigue, various injuries while diving.
The risk of drowning is increased in the case whirlpool, high speed water flow, availability of key sources. Calm demeanor in a critical situation and the lack of panic can significantly reduce the risk of drowning.
Types of drowning
There are three types of drowning.
The true form of drowning is characterized by fluid-filled airways to the smallest branches - the alveoli. The alveolar septa pressurized fluid burst capillaries, and water or other liquid into the blood. As a result, there is an infringement of water and salt balance and the collapse of red blood cells.
Asphyxial type of drowning is characterized by spasm of the airways that ultimately leads to suffocation from lack of oxygen. If water or a liquid in the respiratory tract occurs laryngospasm, resulting in hypoxia. In the latter stages of drowning airways relaxed and fluid into the lungs.
Syncope is characterized by the form of drowning death of reflex cardiac arrest and breathing. This kind of drowning happens from hypothermia or strong emotional turmoil. 10-14% of all cases of drowning.
Signs of drowning
The main symptoms and signs of drowning depend on its type.
When there is a sharp drowning true cyanosis of skin and mucous membranes of the respiratory tract is thrown pink foam, the veins on his neck and legs are very swollen.
When drowning asphyxial skin are not a blue color, as in true drowning. From the lungs of the victim is released finely pink foam.
When syncope drowning skin are pale color because of spasm of the capillaries such victims are called "pale." This kind of drowning has the most favorable prognosis. It is known that the syncopal drowning, even after more than 10 minutes of underwater recovery possible.
It should be noted that the forecast is drowning in the sea waters more favorable than in fresh water.
Help is drowning resuscitation. It must be remembered that, the sooner take action to revive, the better the prognosis and the better the chances of recovery of the victim.
The primary means of drowning is to conduct artificial respiration and chest compressions.
Artificial respiration is desirable to implement as soon as possible, even during transport to shore. You must first release the oral cavity from foreign bodies. For this finger, wrapped with a bandage (or any clean cloth) is introduced into the mouth and remove all unnecessary. If there is a spasm of the masticatory muscles, which is why you can not open your mouth, you need to insert a gag, or any metal object.
To release the light from the water and foam can apply special suction. If not, then it is necessary to lay belly down on the affected knee saver and vigorously squeeze the chest. If within a few seconds the water is not moving away, you need to start ventilation. To do this, the victim lay on the ground, throws his head back, one hand under the rescuer puts his neck and the other on the patient's forehead. Neob6hodimo push the lower jaw so that the lower teeth came forward. Then the rescuer deep breath and pressed his mouth to the mouth or nose of the victim, exhales. When the respiratory activity of the victim to discontinue mechanical ventilation can not be restored if you do not mind, and disturbed the rhythm of breathing.
If cardiac activity is absent, along with artificial respiration is necessary to chest compressions. Hands rescuer should be placed perpendicular to the sternum of the patient in the lower third. Massage is done in the form of jerks at intervals of relaxation. The frequency of bursts - from 60 to 70 per minute. With proper chest compressions blood from the ventricles gets into the circulatory system.
If the rescuer performs recovery alone, it is necessary to alternate the massage of the heart muscle and artificial ventilation. 4-5 pushes on the sternum should pripadat one blowing air into the lungs.
The time for optimum resuscitation action is 4 to 6 minutes after the salvation of man. When drowning in icy water recovery possible and within half an hour after removal from the water.
In any case, as soon as possible, even when recovering all vital functions, it is mandatory to bring the victim to the hospital.