General characteristics of the disease
Diplopia - it ophthalmic pathologies associated with double vision. Objects that fall within the field of view of man, look double as a result of the deviation of the axis of the eye. Such violations can cause a number of reasons ophthalmologic, neurologic, or infectious nature.
Development diplopia may provoke the displacement in the orbit of the eyeball. To him often lead eye injury, such as impairment of the eye muscles, caused by orbital wall fracture. Abnormal position of the eyeball and cause bruising of the eye tissue.
Another possible cause of diplopia - damage to the oculomotor nerve. It can cause carotid artery aneurysm, intracranial tumor or meningitis TB etiology.
The reasons are as diplopia infectious processes that have affected the brain stem at the rubella, mumps, diphtheria and tetanus. Diplopia may also cause severe alcohol or drug intoxication.
Ghosting or double vision often observed against botulism, hyperthyroidism, multiple sclerosis, or hysterical attacks. The cause of diplopia, as a kind of post-operative complications, can serve as a manipulation of the eyes in the surgical treatment of retinal detachment, cataracts or strabismus.
The symptoms of diplopia
The main complaint of patients with diplopia - ghosting. In most cases, double vision of reality objects vision occurs when the two eyes. So manifest binocular diplopia. Double vision may be partial and appear only in a certain area of the field of vision or complete. Manifestation of diplopia also individually depending on the remoteness of the considered subjects. In some instances, the doubling occurs only when looking at closely spaced or, alternatively, solely on remote objects.
Two images of the object arising from diplopia have different brightness and contrast. One of them is usually slightly offset vertically and horizontally and positioned at a predetermined angle to the second image.
Due to the progressive diplopia the patient loses labor skills. He can be hard to do housework, transport control, and sometimes moving. To return the image sharpness man with binocular diplopia have to close one eye. Patients with other kind of diseases, monocular diplopia, this measure does not help.
Types of diplopia
Binocular double vision - the most common form of double vision. When binocular diplopia visual picture of both eyes is not projected in the corresponding points of the retina. The visual axis is shifted, and the patient with binocular diplopia sees double images of objects. Binocular diplopia can be motor, sensory or mixed, permanent or temporary, neuroparalytic, orbital-induced injuries strabogennoy in strabismus, etc.
Monocular diplopia - a rare pathology of double vision. Violations of the image, in this case arise even when one eye vision. For monocular diplopia resulting projection images simultaneously on two different points of the retina of the eye. Monocular diplopia often cause subluxation or partial clouding of the lens. The cause of monocular diplopia may be also iridodialysis (separation of the iris from the ciliary body as a result of trauma to the eye) or Policoro (congenital abnormality of the structure of the iris with several holes).
Primary diagnosis of diplopia established on the basis of the patient complaints about ghosting. Further diagnosis of the disease is continuing with the test control view of a man whose gaze is directed to moving the light source.
With the mapping coordinates of the images the doctor fails to diagnose some of the eye muscles affected. A more modern method of determining the damaged extraocular muscles of the eye - koordimetriya using oftalmokoordimetra OK.
Diagnosis diplopia also involves mandatory assessment of the situation and age of mobility using Cover dough. In addition, inspection is carried out bulbar conjunctiva checked visual acuity, refraction and color perception.
Treatment diplopia secondary type of neurological, or infectious etiology involves ophthalmic treatment of the underlying disease.
Treatment diplopia as the underlying disease is managed by a neurologist or neurosurgeon. In the treatment of diplopia traumatic nature participates eye surgeon performing a resection or plastic eye muscles. At the same time carry out the operation on the eye muscles may be, as a rule, only 6 months after injury.
Optical correction of diplopia is performed using prismatic glasses. They are able to significantly improve the clarity of the patient. Optimal correction in the treatment of diplopia 6 prism diopters for each eye.
In rare cases, it may be wearing glasses with greater parallel compensation. Fresnel prism may be in force until 20 pr. Diopters, but even at 15 Prospect compensation. Diopter they affect visual acuity and create the effect of an iris around the visible objects.
Functional treatment of diplopia is to perform special exercises Kashchenko to restore binocular vision capabilities and expand the field of view, as well as exercises to merge items with a red glass, etc.