Brief description of the disease
Diphyllobothriasis - is infecting organism intestinal worms Difillobotrium accompanied the defeat of the digestive tract, megaloblastic anemia.
What matters most is a tapeworm, one of the representatives of tapeworms that cause diphyllobothriasis. The parasite reaches a length of 2-10m, it consists of a head, a neck and a long body chlenistovidnogo.
More prone to diphyllobothriasis those who live in regions with temperate, cold climate (mostly in the northern hemisphere), and development of fisheries in the reservoirs of fresh water. The final hosts of the parasite: fish-eating animals and humans. Intermediate hosts - Cyclops crustaceans and freshwater fish (salmon, perch, pike, ruff, burbot and others).
Pathogen diphyllobothriasis in maturity stage parasite in the small intestine of humans or animals, predisposed to it after their feces released into the environment helminth eggs. The eggs fall into the water, and after 2-5 weeks there germs that are swallowed by freshwater crustaceans. Further development of embryos in the form procercoids occurs in muscle, fat, liver tissues of fish that feed on crustaceans. Here the worms move to the next shape development, dangerous to humans.
Infection diphyllobothriasis is due to ingestion of raw, poorly processed, salted contaminated fish and its roe.
You can also get infected through diphyllobothriasis knives, utensils, boards, with which butchered infected fish.
The incubation period diphyllobothriasis - 30-50dn. During this time the worms move in mature form, are fixed in the intestine and begin to function.
Starts diphyllobothriasis gradually. Nausea, epigastric pain, vomiting, decreased appetite, broken chair.
The main symptoms diphyllobothriasis at a later stage: fatigue, dizziness, weakness, pain, paresthesia, cracked tongue (the tongue becomes smooth later). There is a tachycardia, the noise of the top and systolic murmur at the apex, hypotension.
With the help of laboratory tests of blood allegedly infected patient can see these hidden diphyllobothriasis symptoms - reduction of hemoglobin, red blood cells, high color index, the increase of direct bilirubin, neutropenia, leukocytosis, accelerated erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
If diphyllobothriasis passes severe, it appears funicular myelosis expressed in violation of a deep sensitivity, blurred paresthesias, weakness of the legs.
In the long diphyllobothriasis developing bowel obstruction
Diagnosis of the disease
A major role in diagnosing diphyllobothriasis plays the availability of information on the whereabouts of a patient in the last month or two, about the facts of the use of butchering them or freshwater fish.
There are cases when part of mature parasites in the feces out. It is also a characteristic symptom diphyllobothriosis: outwardly, unlike bovine or porcine tapeworm leave only fragments of the body of the parasite.
It is also important to distinguish diphyllobothriasis anemia Addison-Biermer. To do this, examine the contents of the stomach in the presence of factor Castle, which is not in anemia.
The final diagnosis "diphyllobothriasis" can be placed after the eggs in the feces exhibit Difillobotriuma.
Treatment diphyllobothriasis appointed immediately after diagnosis.
If the anemia is expressed, before removing helminth patient is prescribed a course of vitamins and iron supplements. Vitamin B12 prick 2-3r / week for a month.
For the treatment used diphyllobothriasis praziquantel (synonyms - Azinoks, biltricid). The efficacy of this therapy is 95%. If the patient has a contraindication to the drug (lactation, cysticercosis eye or liver disease, liver failure, the age of 4 years, pregnancy), appointed to take the pumpkin seeds.
Pumpkin seed (dried or moist, powdered with honey and water) in an amount of 300g taking fasting for one hour.
After treatment, the patient diphyllobothriasis even after full release of worms observed at least another 3 months, be sure to monitor the condition of feces and blood.
In rare cases when diphyllobothriasis complicated by intestinal obstruction, surgery is prescribed.
Prevention of illness
To prevent diphyllobothriasis regions suspected to be contaminated should be advocacy, to ensure sanitary control the descent of sewage, the state of the coast and the beaches of fishery products entering the production, markets and shops.
Once a patient is diagnosed, it is necessary to examine his family and, if necessary, prescribe treatment.