Diffuse changes thyroid

The thyroid gland - an organ of the endocrine system. The gland is located on the front of the neck. It consists of two parts  Morphologically, the disease may be in the form of diffuse changes thyroid or in the form focal lesions
 and the Isthmus, located in front of the trachea .  Quite often (in 30% of cases) has a pyramidal share going up from one of the side lobes (usually the left) or Isthmus .  The weight of the thyroid gland in normal 15-30g .  The structure of the normal thyroid gland always homogeneous .  The entire gland tissue slices represented 0, 5-1 mm in diameter .  Morphological units of the thyroid gland is the follicle (the bubble) .  The walls consist of follicular thyrocytes and the lumen is filled with colloid .  The main function of thyrocytes is the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones in the blood .  These hormones include thyroxine and triiodothyronine .  Thyroid hormones affect the development and functioning of the central nervous system, they enhance the breakdown of protein, fat and glycogen, and also have other effects in the body .  Once located in the thyroid C-cells, which secrete calcitonin .  This hormone effect on calcium metabolism, stimulating its transition into the bone .  Thus, the function of the thyroid hormone are varied, and the importance of this gland can not be overstated for the body .

Focal and diffuse changes of the thyroid gland

Unfortunately, there are a number of diseases of the endocrine organ .  Some of these diseases increase the function of the thyroid gland, causing excessive synthesis of hormones and other hormones reduce the production, and the third on the hormonal activity of the gland is not affected .  Morphologically, the disease may be in the form of diffuse changes thyroid or in the form focal lesions .  Focal changes - is a node, surrounded by unmodified tissue cancer .  Pathology of the cancer can only be at the hub, mixed goiter, adenoma and cancer of the thyroid gland . Such changes of the thyroid gland are not independent disease .  The cause of diffuse changes of the thyroid zhelezychasche just become endemic goiter, chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, subacute thyroiditis, Graves' disease, a mixed crop .  At the heart of diffuse tissue changes is insufficient intake of iodine in the body or inflammatory reaction .  Iodine deficiency is most often observed in endemic regions, where the soil and water are not sufficiently rich in this micronutrient .  For endemic regions include many areas in the Russian Federation .  Inflammation in the tissue of the prostate often is autoimmune in nature, i.e. degradation occurs due to pathological aggression own human immunity .

Diagnosis of diffuse changes of breast tissue

In order to identify diffuse changes of the thyroid gland or its local defeat, conducted palpation (feeling with hands) authority. Since iron is superficial palpation can give valuable information on the state of the body. This survey is carried out in the patient's face to the doctor. The patient sits, stands or lies. On palpation detected nodes or diffuse changes of the thyroid gland. Size glands evaluated, its density, uniformity of structure. Signs of diffuse changes of the thyroid gland are the density and heterogeneity of the surface of the body without the expressed focal changes, blurring often increased the volume of the prostate.

Ultrasonic signs of diffuse changes of the thyroid gland

More information about the structure of the thyroid gland produce imaging examination methods .  The most common method for imaging thyroid tissue is ultrasonography (ultrasound, ultrasound) .  This study is widely available and safe .  That is the conclusion of the ultrasonic diagnostic patient first learns about the presence of a diffuse changes of the thyroid gland .  The indication for this study is a suspicion of thyroid disease .  The grounds can serve as hormonal disorders, complaints or inspection results .  In the absence of evidence to support the thyroid gland ultrasound examination is not carried out, since it is not a screening test .  Unfortunately, currently many patients decide to go their own thyroid ultrasound .  The findings of the heterogeneity of the structure, changes in follicular or diffuse inhomogeneity can become a cause of excitement for the patient and undue interference .

during  Diffuse changes thyroid determined by palpation
 ultrasound examination of thyroid lobes determine their sizes, followed by a special formula calculates the volume of the thyroid gland .  Then estimated ehostruktura and echogenicity of the thyroid gland .  Ehostruktura may be homogeneous and inhomogeneous .  A homogeneous structure is characterized by a uniform distribution of the same size and location of the reflected echoes .  Neodnorodnayaehostruktura is unevenly arranged alternating echoes of different intensity and size .  Ehogennost cancer compared with the echogenicity of the surrounding tissues .  It can be an average (normal), high and low .  Increased echogenicity may increase with the proportion of connective tissue in the thyroid gland .  Lots of increased calcium deposits also have povyshennuyuehogennost .  Povyshennayaehogennost may be at higher liquid content in iron, excessive blood filling, increasing the proportion of thyrocyte .  Separately describe local changes .  Thus, the results of ultrasound the doctor concludes that there were changes in diffuse cancer, if detected ehostruktura heterogeneous tissue, increased or decreased echogenicity .  Other imaging techniques - magnetic resonance and computer tomography .  They are used much less frequently due to the lower availability and the potential danger for the patient .  These may be the basis tomography for diagnosis of diffuse or focal lesions of the glandular tissue, as these methods estimate the structure and density of organ .

Treatment of diffuse changes of the thyroid gland

Reasons diffuse Thyroid various changes, respectively, and therapy may be different. Treatment of diffuse changes of the thyroid in endemic goitre is carried out using iodine preparations. If no effect is added to the treatment of hormonal drug L-thyroxine. In chronic autoimmune thyroiditis conservative treatment is prescribed only in the presence of hypothyroidism. Likewise, treatment of diffuse toxic goiter is to suppress excessive synthesis of thyroid hormones. Treatment of diffuse changes of the thyroid gland in these diseases is not carried out. In the event of a significant increase in prostate and surrounding tissue compression of operation is applied.





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