Fluorosis - endemic (characteristic of certain areas) or an occupational disease, the cause of which lies in the high content of fluoride in the water, products and the environment. In the 18th century because of the characteristic changes of tooth enamel fluorosis called "mottled enamel" or "mottled teeth"
The group of professional risk of fluorosis are working industries that involve emissions of fluorine compounds in the air. Highly fluorine compounds in the gaseous state provoke atrophic changes in the respiratory mucosa, thereby perhaps development of diseases such as laryngitis, rhinitis, pharyngitis and fluorosis. Often come changes in the internal organs and bone. Etiology (cause) of endemic fluorosis is not always in direct proportion to the content of fluoride in water (normal concentration of this element - 0, 7-1, 3 mg / L). A major role in the development of dental fluorosis plays compliance regime food, living environment and the timing of being in such an area. It is also important social factors.
The main symptoms of fluorosis
The most characteristic symptoms of the disease in dentistry - often it is limited to the defeat of the tooth enamel. This does not apply to virtually fluorosis of deciduous teeth, because mineralization occurs in the womb, so it is believed that the placenta retains a large amount of fluorine. Although it is possible that at a very high content of fluoride dental fluorosis can occur even in very young children.
Striking tooth enamel fluorosis in children captures the most symmetrical permanent teeth, for example, the central incisors. As a rule, the first clinical symptoms appear soon after the eruption. In this enamel acquires haze loses transparency, and on its surface spots appear initially milky white and then yellow-brown color.
The degree of damage fluorosis, according to WHO classification:
- It is very easy form of fluorosis. The color of the enamel has not changed much.
- Mild fluorosis. There is the appearance of a milky-white streaks or small spots of the same for individual teeth. At the same time the affected area does not exceed 25% of the total area of the tooth crown.
- Mild form of fluorosis. Area covered by chalky spots and stripes is 50%.
- Medium - in addition to the spots appear chalky brown or yellowish color. To this extent, characterized by susceptibility to caries.
- Severe fluorosis. There defeat most of the tooth crown, added to a pronounced pigmentation violation of the structure of hard tissues. The deformation of crowns, enamel exposed to abrasion and chipping. When third-degree fluorosis can affect bone tissue of the skeleton.
Diagnosis of dental fluorosis
To diagnose dental fluorosis as a child and adult people do not make much effort. At the same time detect fluorosis in children may like the dentist and pediatrician. Diagnosis of the disease is based on clinical manifestations, typical for different degrees of fluorosis. However, the expert will differentiate it from caries in the stage of spot. If caries lesions characteristic unit, located in the typical places, fluorosis appears multiple changes which occur soon after the main eruption of teeth.
Treatment of dental fluorosis
If the diagnosis has shown that your child fluorosis, treatment is carried out, depending on the severity of the disease.
- At first, mild, fluorosis is treated with bleaching followed remineralizes therapy - saturation of dental hard tissues of different compounds of trace elements (phosphorus, calcium, etc.).
- When fluorosis of moderate and severe when there are violations of the destructive tooth enamel or apply such therapies as: restoration of affected areas using composite materials or using prosthetic
Prevention of disease
Prevention of dental fluorosis includes collective and individual actions.
By public preventive measures fluorosis include:
- The construction of new or reconstruction of old water treatment plants, which could Defluorinated water
- The mixing of waters with different concentrations of fluoride, resulting in a reduction of the content of this element
- The use of water filters from overheated bone or aluminum sulfate
- Providing summer for children in areas with low fluorine content
- No use of water with high levels of fluoride in children's institutions and providing them with imported water
- Importation into the territory of these fruits and vegetables grown in areas where fluorine content is within the normal range
To prevent the development of dental fluorosis, is necessary and individual prevention, including:
- Changing the source of drinking water. What can I use bottled water with an optimal mineral contents.
- If possible, ensure breastfeeding infants
- Fortification of food with vitamins group B, C, D, proteins, salts of calcium and phosphorus. Isklyuchienie from the diet products containing a large amount of fluorine - sea fish, melted butter, fatty meat and strong tea.
- Increasing the amount of dairy products, fruits and vegetables - they have antiflyuoroznym action. For the winter season it is necessary to increase your child's intake of multivitamins, intake of calcium gluconate and fish oil. Naturally, changes in diet should be carried out after consultation with your doctor.
- Careful and regular dental care, the use of toothpaste containing calcium glycerophosphate
These preventive measures help to reduce the symptoms of the disease such as dental fluorosis in children. A systematic visit to the dental office will make a smile not only joyful but also open!