Delusional disorder - type of mental disorder, otherwise known as paranoid or psychotic disorder, which is characterized by the presence of well-systematized delusions.
delusional disorder from schizophrenia is the firm belief of the patient in anything wrong, but devoid of whimsy and imagination. If this disorder can manifest delusions of persecution, delusions of jealousy and unrequited love, dysmorphophobia etc. And the reality of the situation experienced by the patient may be either untrue or exaggerated.
Thus people with delusional disorder often socially active and adequate in areas other than the subject of delirium. However, in some cases, patients are so absorbed in their obsessions, their lives are destroyed.
Diagnosis of Delusional Disorder
This mental illness is diagnosed based on the following criteria:
- The absence of a psychotic disorder nature caused by the reception of psychotropic drugs;
- Lack persistent hallucinations;
- Have neekstsentrichnoy delusional system that is not characteristic of schizophrenia;
- Persecution delusion for three months or more.
When delusional disorder may be a manifestation of symptoms of depression, but the affective symptoms of the disease after the nature of delusions remains unchanged.
Severe delirium is the most colorful and unique clinical characteristics of the disease and is usually personal, not subkulturalny character.
Causes of Delusional Disorder
The exact causes of delusional disorders, as well as many other diseases of mental character, is unknown. However, experts identified three factors characteristic of human exposure:
- Genetic factors. Due to the fact that delusional disorder most often occurs in people whose relatives have suffered from mental disorders. It is believed that a predisposition to the emergence of delusional disorder can be inherited from parents to children;
- Biological factors. Doctors often associated with the formation of delusional symptoms of an imbalance of neurotransmitters in the brain - substances that help nerve cells communicate pulses;
- Environmental factors. There is evidence that the "trigger" delusional disorder may make frequent stress, alcohol and drug abuse, loneliness.
Organic delusional disorder
The main feature of organic delusional disorder is a specificity of psychosis due to a family history, or defeat the corresponding brain structures (transient or persistent). Organic delusional disorders can be divided into two groups: acute and chronic. Chronic conditions are characterized by a slow and often irreversible pathological process.
acute delusional disorder psychopathology occurs suddenly: as a rule, it is due to a sharp dysfunction of the brain (brain injury, acute infectious disease, etc.). As a result, the treatment of this disorder can be either reversible or take a progressive course.
Chronic delusional disorder
For chronic delusional disorders include a number of mental disorders, which can not be classified as schizophrenic, organic and affective. The main clinical symptom of chronic delusional disorder - persistent delusions lasting more than 3 months.
Forms course of chronic delusional disorders are different, and they are divided into 3 main types:
- Paranoid syndrome;
- Paranoid syndrome;
- Paraphrenic syndrome.
Paranoid syndrome or paranoid delusional system is characterized by strong without hallucinations. Paranoid delusions, usually well systematized and developed without internal contradictions. The development of delirium, of course, entails structural changes in personality, but they do not bear signs of dementia, and therefore, these people seem to be around quite sane. Paranoid syndrome suffer pathological "jealous", "prophets", "inventors," "people of high birth" and others.
When paranoid delusions syndrome patients also fit into a certain system, but it is less logical and more controversial. In the development of this type of delusional disorder play an important role unstable hallucinations - "voices" that comment on the behavior of a paranoid. With further development of the disease delirium may impose a mark on the professional and personal life of a person.
Paraphrenic or paraphrenia syndrome is characterized by a fantastic, obviously fictional nonsense. Designated in the course of the disease have pseudohallucinations and false memories (confabulation) if they are not typically schizophrenic and form a small part of the overall clinical picture of the patient.
Treatment of delusional disorders
Treatment of delusional disorder is to use two complex methods: medication and psychotherapy.
The main goal of psychotherapy is to postpone the attention of the patient with the object of his frustration on a more constructive things. It is subdivided into individual, family and cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy, allowing the patient to learn and help change the course of thoughts, causing him concern.
Drug treatment of delusional disorders associated with taking antipsychotics - drugs used to treat psychiatric disorders since the mid 50-ies of the last century. The essence of their actions is blocking dopamine receptors in the brain. A new generation of drugs used to treat delusional disorder, atypical antipsychotics are affecting dopamine and serotonin receptors. If the patient has depression, depression, anxiety, in the course of therapy therapists may have to take tranquilizers and antidepressants.
Patients with severe delusional disorders hospitalized in a medical institution, as long as their condition is not normal.