Cyst - a soft, hollow, abnormal formation of a liquid-filled, forms in various tissues and organs.
Cyst joint - secondary disease, coupled with the joint tissue cavity filled with liquid, which is formed as a result of inflammation, trauma, degenerative joint disease.
Cyst joint in most cases affects the most mobile joint systems of the body: knees, hips, ankles.
A cyst is a joint circular, sedentary tumor, reaching from a few millimeters to 5 cm in diameter, are easily palpation. The cyst is characterized by joint firm-elastic consistency and clear boundaries. Cysts localized in the projection of the bursa or tendon replacement. In most cases, cyst joint is formed with its back side. The cyst is not soldered joint with subcutaneous fat and skin. Externally joint cyst has no special features, the surface of the skin over cysts remains unchanged (no redness, changes in its structure). In medical practice, no cases of degeneration of the joints in the malignant cyst formation.
Cyst joint is formed and develops symptoms, without causing inconvenience to the patient. Tenderness absent. Some pain may occur during the operation of the joint.
Cysts of the joints is very labile (change their size, may disappear completely). Cysts can be single (with formation of a cavity) and multiple (with the formation of numerous small cysts).
The main symptoms of the cyst joint:
- The swelling in the joint, which has clear boundaries, lends itself well to palpation;
- Soreness at the joint;
- Malfunctions of the joint to a complete loss of mobility;
- Numbness surrounding tissue swelling.
Cyst joint often observed in patients suffering from arthritis, arthrosis, osteoarthritis. Cyst of the joint is not an independent disease, but is a consequence of injury, chronic, degenerative joint diseases, inflammatory processes.
The main methods of diagnosis of cysts of the joint are:
These techniques allow the study to establish the disease which caused the formation of cysts, to identify the degree of damage to the joint, to determine the size and location of the cyst in the joint tissues, produce biochemical content of cystic formation.
Cyst of the knee
Stifle - articular complex, connecting the tibia and femur and the patella (kneecap). Cyst knee joint is formed on its rear side. Formed cyst localized in the popliteal fossa. A cyst is also called a knee cyst Becker.
Cysts do not cause discomfort to the patient, however, reaching significant size can compress blood vessels and nerves, which in turn leads to thrombosis, phlebitis, inflammation, neuritis, varicose veins, edema, loss of sensation and numbness in the leg.
The main risk in the diagnosis of cysts of the knee joint is its break with the outpouring of the contents in the surrounding tissues, which can cause inflammation in tissues. Cyst knee in most cases caused by the frequent injuries.
Cyst of the hip
The hip joint - multi-axis, ball-shaped articular complex formed by the articular surface of the femoral head and lunate surface of the acetabulum. Cyst of the hip may not have external manifestations as a cyst of the knee.
Pathogenesis cysts hip joint is also characterized by the formation of cavities filled synovial fluid. In this type of cystic formation patient feels pain when moving much sooner than in the defeat of cysts of other joints (knee, ankle). Many patients notice stiffness, discomfort, numbness, loss of sensation of the affected area.
Cyst of the hip diagnosed using MRI and X-ray studies. This type of cysts often caused by inflammatory, degenerative diseases rather than injuries.
The ankle is a joint foot and shin bone (talus, fibula and tibia). Cyst ankle are smaller, and the formation of its asymptomatic, localized to the back of the joint. Cyst ankle is also a consequence of degenerative processes of joint injuries.
Treatment of cysts joint
Treatment of cysts of the joint can be conservative and radical. Cyst joint does not cause discomfort to the patient, also requires prompt treatment to prevent rupture of the capsule and its surrounding tissue inflammation.
Conservative treatment of cysts joint suggest:
- Crushing - the essence of the method lies in the actual contents of the cystic formation squeezing back into the motherboard chamber. This method was widely used until the 80s of the 20th century. With this method of treating cysts of the joint capsule is fully maintained, which is produced and synovial fluid accumulates. This method of treatment is a temporary measure. Recidivism in this method is inevitable;
- Puncture of cysts joint - the treatment of cysts on the periphery of the joint diagnosis and treatment education. Piercing the cyst and extract its contents is performed to biochemical analysis and detection of inflammatory processes. The contents of the cyst is pumped through the puncture needle. The purified cystic cavity injected anti-inflammatory drugs, in place cysts imposed tight compressive bandage, and the joint is immobilized to reduce the production of synovial fluid. This technique is mainly used in cases where a surgical excision of the cyst is not possible. After the puncture is high risk of relapse;
- Drug treatment - the use of anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids.
Radical treatment of cysts is surgical excision of the joint tumors. The currently used endoscopic techniques remove cysts of the joints, which have a number of advantages: a small mechanical damage tissue manipulation minimally invasive, painless, quick recovery of the patient after the procedure.
The operation is performed under local anesthesia. During manipulation of the surgeon performs the complete removal of the cyst capsule, which prevents its re-emergence as well as take in the weak point of the joint capsule special seam contributing to strengthen it.