Life-threatening condition in which there is a drop in blood pressure and deteriorating blood supply to vital organs, called the collapse. This condition manifests itself in the emergence of human weakness and sharp pallor, cooled limbs and sharp-featured face.
Also at collapse it is meant a form of acute vascular failure in which there is a sharp drop in vascular tonus or rapid decrease in circulating blood volume, leading to:
- Oppression of the vital functions of the body;
- Reduction of venous flow to the heart;
- Fall and venous blood pressure;
- Cerebral hypoxia.
It is important to identify the reasons for the emergence of the state, and know how to provide first aid in the collapse, as it can help save the life of a person to transport to a medical facility.
The reasons for the collapse of
Possible causes of the collapse are acute infections, which include meningoencephalitis, typhoid and typhus, pneumonia, etc. Also, the condition occurs on the background of acute blood loss, diseases of the nervous and endocrine systems, exogenous intoxication, occurs due to organophosphate poisoning or carbon monoxide.
In medical practice registered many cases when the collapse occurs at orthostatic blood redistribution arising as a result of an overdose of drugs such as antihypertensive drugs, ganglionic, insulin and others.
The collapse may develop as a result of complications of cardiac output syndrome Small occurring during acute myocardial infarction, tachycardia, bradycardia and profound dysfunction of the sinus node.
The collapse of the cardiovascular system may be due to:
- Pubertalnym period in girls;
- A sharp change in body position in bed patient;
- High ambient temperatures;
- A strong electric shock;
- A strong dose of ionizing radiation.
The reasons for the collapse also act spinal and epidural anesthesia, acute abdominal disease.
Signs of collapse
The patient suddenly there is a feeling of general weakness, chilliness, dizziness, chills, unquenchable thirst, decreased body temperature. The signs of collapse are such acts as:
- Sharp-featured face;
- Cooling limbs;
- Pale skin and mucous membranes (sometimes with a touch of tsiatonichnym);
- The whole body or just the forehead and temples, covered with cold sweat;
- The weakness of the pulse;
- The decrease in blood pressure.
The examination of the patient usually reveals that his heart is not extended to the deaf, sometimes arrhythmia, tones, rapid and shallow breathing, decreased urine output. When a blood test revealed that its volume is reduced, increased hematocrit, decompensated metabolic acidosis.
The patient has a desire to lie down or sit down with a low-lying his head, he does not feel suffocation in spite of the shortness of breath, his mind kept or obscured, this is characteristic of complete indifference to what is happening around.
The signs of collapse as a weak reaction of pupils to light, seizures and tremors of the fingers.
Types of collapse
In medicine conventionally distinguish three types of collapse:
Occurrence hypovolemic collapse caused by dehydration, severe blood loss or plazmopoterya, because of which sharply reduces the amount of blood in the vessels.
Cardiogenic collapse occurs on the background:
- Congestive heart failure;
- Acute cardiac abnormalities;
- The sharp decrease in cardiac output.
Vazolidatsionny collapse characteristic of severe infectious and toxic states, deep hypoxia, hyperthermia, hypocapnia, endocrinopathies, developing incorrect use of medicines, and in excess of kinins, histamine and adenosine in the blood, leading to the total peripheral vascular resistance.
Collapse: first aid and treatment
Depending on the reasons for the emergence of the state, it is necessary in the short term have in the collapse of the first medical aid to the patient. If the state was the bleeding - it is necessary to stop the poisoning by toxic substances - remove them from the body using a specific antidote.
Then, the patient must be delivered in a medical facility where he will appoint adequate treatment of collapse - will spend transfusion of blood substitutes using saline solutions gemodez, polyglukin reopoligljukin and, if necessary, and exactly as prescribed can apply blood components.
Then, with the collapse of the treatment, the patient is administered by intravenous bolus of 60-90 mg of prednisolone, if the effect of its application is insufficient, add:
- 10% solution of caffeine - 1-2 ml;
- 1% solution of phenylephrine - 1.2 ml;
- 0, 2% solution of noradrenaline - 1 ml;
- Kordiamin - 2.1 ml;
- 10% solution sulfokamfokain - 2 ml.
Metabolic acidosis patient intravenously administered either 8, 4% (50-100 ml), a 4, a 5% (100-200 ml), sodium hydrogen carbonate solution. If the appearance of collapse served small cardiac output syndrome, arrhythmia due to generally prescribe antiarrhythmic drugs intravenously administered diluted 25, 100 or 200 mg of dopamine in isotonic sodium chloride solution or 5% glucose solution, and provide emergency pacing.
Collapse is a condition in which there is a deterioration of blood supply to internal organs and drop in blood pressure that threatens human life. Most important in the development of the state to determine that it was the appearance since the collapse of the subsequent treatment should be aimed at addressing the causes. Further, depending on the indication and the type of collapse, the doctor prescribes an adequate medical treatment, transfusion of blood products may prescribe and apply pacing.