General characteristics of the disease
Urethritis - is an inflammatory process in the urethra. The disease is transmitted sexually and is most common in young men and women, sexually active lifestyle with multiple sexual partners.
The symptoms of urethritis in women is virtually impossible to differentiate from the clinical picture of cystitis (bladder inflammation).
In men, urethritis rarely occurs in pure form. In most cases, the disease occurs in an acute form on the background associated genital inflammation.
Depending on the etiology of the disease is customary to distinguish two main types of urethritis.
Gonococcal urethritis acute or chronic, it is gonorrhea, - one of the most common sexually transmitted disease during oral, anal or vaginal sex traditional. However, it is also possible household way of infection gonococcal urethritis in contact with the carrier chelovekom- intracellular gram-negative diplococci «Neisseria gonorrhoeae».
The incubation period of the disease, on average, ranges from 3 days, although there are also strains of gonococcal urethritis from first manifestation of symptoms within 12 hours.
In men, chronic nongonococcal urethritis forms 50% of the proceeds to the background chlamydia infection («Chlamydia trachomatis»). Other possible pathogens negonokkokovogo chronic urethritis - microorganisms Ureaplasma («Ureaplasma urealyticum» », mycoplasma (« Mycoplasma hominis ») and trichomonas (« Trichomonas vaginalis »).
One-third of patients causes polyetiology negonokkokovogo uretirita install completely fails. The path of infection is the same - or sexual contact. The incubation period depends on the type of urethritis the causative agent.
The symptoms of urethritis
The main symptoms are uretirta purulent discharge from the urethra of a pale yellow or yellowish-green. In the acute form of the allocation are abundant in nature, itself becomes edematous urethra, the patient feels itching, burning or pain when urinating. The symptoms of acute urethritis total include frequent urination, sharp pain in the urethra, and increased body temperature. Among the symptoms of urethritis are also called minimal bleeding at the end of urination - the so-called terminal hematuria.
In the transition of the disease in the chronic form of urethritis swelling subsides, the amount of bleeding is reduced, but this does not mean that the illness has passed by itself. Without treatment, urethritis in men face complications in the form of chronic prostatitis, epididymitis or vesiculitis. These diseases cause serious strains of bacteria that have settled in the seminal vesicles and the prostate gland. Women gleet without treatment can lead to infertility.
Diagnosis of urethritis
Physical examination of the patient with symptoms of urethritis performed 1-3 hours after the last urination. When the diagnosis of acute or chronic urethritis is important to have a discharge from the genitals, redness and swelling of the urethra.
Then the patient is sent for analysis by Gram smear of suspected urethritis gonorrhea form. In the diagnosis of urethritis are also used urine tests to detect the number of leukocytes in the sediment of urine, swabs of the vagina, urethra to detect chlamydia, and if necessary, scrape the rectum.
Treatment of urethritis
Previously, the standard treatment of urethritis in men and women were the direct introduction of antiseptics to the urethra. Today it is possible tableted or intramuscular injection treatment of urethritis.
Instead Petsillina obsolete in the modern treatment of uncomplicated forms of urethritis applied Ceftriaxone. It is recommended single injection of the drug, and further treatment uretirta men and women continues to oral intake of Doxycycline. Treatment of sexual partner of the patient with acute or chronic urethritis begins at the stage before the results of analyzes.
Treatment of urethritis when unidentified type of the causative agent is recommended that broad-spectrum antibiotics. Irrigation urethra antiseptics are not made because of the high risk of transition to a chronic form of urethritis. Treatment of urethritis - outpatient or home. Hospitalization is required only if the complicated forms of chronic urethritis.
The main method of preventing urethritis - a barrier, namely the use of a condom during sexual intercourse with non-regular sexual partners.