Cholecystitis - an inflammation of the gallbladder. The disease is among the most frequent pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract. It occurs most often in people over 40, although it can be at any age, even children, women get sick more often than men.
The cause of cholecystitis is an infection penetrating into the gallbladder from the intestine with insufficient sphincter of Oddi (the ring of muscle that separates the gallbladder from the intestine), which, in turn, arises because of the stagnation in the gallbladder, which happens often, or gastritis. Sometimes the infection can enter the bloodstream or lymph from other foci.
Stagnation of bile in the gall bladder frequent phenomenon. It is the result of a sedentary lifestyle and eating disorders. This irregular digestion, rare and abundant meals, as well as the frequent use of fatty, fried, smoked and salty foods. Provoking factor of stagnation of bile in the gall bladder in women is pregnancy, as the enlarged uterus compresses the gallbladder. Western doctors call the cause of cholecystitis three F: female, fat, fertile, which can be translated as: a woman, a fat, fertile. Obesity is often accompanied by violations of diet and inactivity, and pregnancy further increases the risk of cholecystitis.
Types of cholecystitis
Cholecystitis is acute or chronic. Chronic cholecystitis can be simple or calculous. Chronic calculous cholecystitis also called cholelithiasis. It is a metabolic disorder, concomitant stagnation of bile in the gall bladder, in which the bile is condensed so that bile acids are precipitated in the form of sand. With the development of the pathological process, sand is increased in size, gradually formed gallstones, ranging from 0, 2 to 3 cm or more in diameter. Stones aggravate the course of chronic cholecystitis, because they can cause spasms of the gall bladder and bile duct blockage, resulting in severe complications such as empyema, gangrene, rupture of the gallbladder.
The symptoms of cholecystitis
The main symptom of acute cholecystitis is the appearance of intense pain in the right upper quadrant, often extending to the right shoulder blade and shoulder. Pain attacks, called biliary colic occurs after a fatty, fried or spicy foods. Besides her, biliary colic attack can be triggered by seafood, melons and some other kinds of foods cause an increase in the flow of bile and gall bladder spasm. Colic is accompanied by nausea and vomiting, not bringing relief. Acute cholecystitis can be accompanied by fever. Usually pain attack takes place over several hours, fatigue and malaise felt more for at least a day. If untreated, acute cholecystitis almost always becomes chronic.
Chronic cholecystitis symptoms may not have as long as it does not happen exacerbation. The symptoms of chronic cholecystitis in the exacerbation indistinguishable from the symptoms of acute cholecystitis, except that an attack of biliary colic occurs more than once, and from time to time in the gross errors in the diet. When calculous cholecystitis biliary colic can be caused by the movement of gallstones, cause spasm and blockage of the bile duct stone. Biliary colic is very painful for the patient, it is torn, trying to take a position in which the pain would be less, and does not find it. The attacks are of varying duration, from half an hour to six hours. The attack, which lasts more than six hours, requires immediate medical attention, as evidence of the development of one of the severe complications of cholecystitis.
Diagnosis is based on characteristic symptoms of cholecystitis, namely symptoms of biliary colic. To clarify the diagnosis and determine the type of cholecystitis, use the following diagnostic methods:
- Fibrogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) - endoscopic method of diagnosis, allowing detail the state of the mucous membrane of the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract, particularly the sphincter of Oddi. Also during EGD taken to investigate the bile;
- US. This simple and safe method to determine the presence of gallstones and ducts.
These methods are fundamental in the diagnosis of cholecystitis. In some cases, a suspected tumor process can be used CT (computed tomography) or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging).
Treatment of cholecystitis
Treatment of acute cholecystitis and aggravated chronic form is performed in a hospital, because there is always a risk of complications. At the beginning of shoot attack of biliary colic: painkillers are administered, anti-inflammatory drugs. Appointed by the famine, and bed rest. After the acute symptoms subside starting to causal (to address the causes of disease) treatment of cholecystitis.
Treatment of acute cholecystitis and chronic simple form consists of antibiotic therapy, which allows to eliminate the infection, drugs, thinning bile and facilitates its evacuation, and then in the normalization of lifestyle and nutrition
. The most important tool is a diet with cholecystitis
. Virtually all cases of biliary colic is always associated with taking banned products, so food cholecystitis should be organized so as to completely eliminate these foods: fatty, fried, smoked, spicy and salty foods, seafood, alcohol and some others that the patient is usually learns at their own sad experience
. Diet cholecystitis is fractional meal - small portions throughout the day
. Meals should not be less than five
. Diet for cholecystitis should be balanced and consist of digestible foods, mostly dairy-vegetable
. For obese patients meals with cholecystitis selected taking into account the need to reduce weight, and consists of a low-calorie foods, while maintaining the principle of granularity and frequency
Treatment of calculous cholecystitis in the form of surgery, and it consists in the removal of the gallbladder with stones. All other methods - drug dissolution of rocks and wave lithotripsy ineffective, and almost one hundred percent probability lead to a relapse.
People's treatment of cholecystitis
People's treatment of cholecystitis is used as a medicinal herb teas and fees that have anti-inflammatory and choleretic effect. This St. John's wort, corn stigmas, barberry, immortelle, tansy, and others.
People's treatment of cholecystitis can be quite effective, but it can be carried out only at the stage of residual symptoms in the acute form of the disease, and in between bouts of in simple chronic cholecystitis. People's treatment of cholecystitis in stage of biliary colic is extremely dangerous, as this condition requires emergency medical activities.