Brief description of the disease
Chickenpox or, as it used to call the people, chickenpox is one of acute viral diseases. The infectious agent is a virus of shingles. The disease is transmitted by droplet infection and affects people of all ages. Note that chicken pox in adults and children become contagious before the onset of symptoms, and therefore in our country and abroad are regularly recorded epidemic of chickenpox, usually coinciding with the winter and early spring.
The virus enters the human body through the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract. They are also going to its original reproduction (replication). After the virus enters the bloodstream and spreads on all major systems of life. In the process of further development of the pathogen of chickenpox is fixed, it causes degenerative changes and forms characteristic blisters filled with serous matter.
Many people believe that the rash - this is the only serious manifestation of the chicken pox. Of course, they are wrong. When the diagnosis of chicken pox and must be treated immediately, as, otherwise, the infection leads to:
- the defeat of the internal organs - lungs, liver, meninges often detected foci of necrosis and hemorrhage;
- the defeat of the intervertebral ganglia and nerve tissue;
- Shingles - occurs at the time of release of the virus to the surface of the skin.
The symptoms of chickenpox
Symptoms of chickenpox is largely dependent on the patient's age. Chickenpox in children rarely occurs in severe and in most cases cured without any serious complications. The situation is different in the case of children with weak immune systems, and adults who have not had chickenpox as a child. They have a more pronounced disease symptoms and requires long-term treatment.
Chickenpox (incubation period of the infection is 10-15 days) has an effect for 2-3 days before the onset of the rash on the skin. Characteristic symptoms of chickenpox - is:
- low-grade fever;
Then, a sick chickenpox rash appears on the skin and mucous membranes. Initially, they are in the form of spots, but then quickly turn into nodules and vesicles, filled with clear liquid. These structures cause severe itching, which is haunted day and night. Almost always, a rash grab the upper body. Thus they may cover as restricted areas and practically the entire surface of the skin of the head and torso when chickenpox has complicated flow.
The formation of nodules and vesicles takes about 5 days. By the end of 6 days the rash does not appear new and old - are covered by a crust, which will disappear by itself after about 3 weeks. After chicken pox at the site of previous ulcers can remain unpleasant deforming scars. This often happens when inflammation or pus bubbles. In this regard, chicken pox is especially dangerous in children. Kids unknowingly comb ulcers, which leads to bacterial infections and abscess formation.
Chickenpox - Treatment and prognosis
As mentioned above, in the childhood infection is well tolerated, but the chicken pox in adults is often severe forms that affect the choice of treatment methods.
In the case of a mild form of chickenpox doctors take measures to relieve itching and prevent scratching sores, in order to prevent the development of secondary bacterial infections. For this purpose, use wet compresses and oatmeal baths. Patients are assigned antihistamines. It is important to observe basic hygiene rules: wear clean underwear, regularly take a bath, cut nails. Antibiotics and antiseptics are used only in case of infection.
Medium-heavy and heavy chicken pox in adults requires a slightly different approach. In addition to the standard procedures of patients compulsorily take antiviral drugs - valacyclovir, acyclovir, famciclovir. Patients with high fever antipyretics recommended. To avoid complications of chickenpox and speed up the production of antibodies, patients administered immunoglobulin.
Features of treatment of chickenpox in children
Throughout infectious disease young children need constant supervision of the parents who have to distract the child with the help of games and not give him a comb bubbles. When the diagnosis of chickenpox treatment is based on total isolation kid from peers of bed rest, a regular change of linen and nail treatment soap solutions. Rash 2-3 times a day sear antiseptics. For this purpose, as the classic "Zelenka" and some other assets - methylene blue solution, rivanol yellow, red potassium permanganate. When children are assigned a strong itch antihistamines, with heat - antipyretics. Children with lowered immunity are administered immunoglobulin. If chickenpox led to suppurative complications, treatment involves antibiotics such as penicillin.
Quarantine stops 5-7 after the appearance of the last fresh bubble. Once again, we note that during the illness parents should take care of the hygiene and nutrition of the child. The only way to avoid secondary infection and formation of ugly scars that can permanently damage the appearance of your baby.
Prevention of chickenpox
At an early age all healthy children should go through the process of vaccination. Vaccines contain weakened chickenpox virus pathogens, so do not be surprised if your child after vaccination pereboleet mild chickenpox. This will help to avoid serious problems in the future, because chickenpox in adults is often severe and is accompanied by serious complications.