Brief description of the disease
The name of the disease, "cardio" is derived from two Greek words: «kardia» - heart and «sklerosis» - seal. This disease affects the myocardial tissue. In the development of the pathology they are replaced with fibrous connective tissue scarring. Further, cardio deforms heart valves. The process of substitution and seals myocardial tissue is a consequence of myocarditis, myocardial dystrophy, coronary heart disease and heart attack.
Depending on the location and intensity of pathology, isolated focal and diffuse cardiosclerosis. The first is characterized by the formation of well-defined lesions of various sizes. The main reasons for their appearance - a myocardial infarction, or any inflammatory processes.
Unlike focal, diffuse kardiosklerosis distributed over the entire surface of the myocardium, i.e., it equally affects various portions of the heart chamber and has no obvious boundaries. It develops, usually after the defeat of the heart muscle.
Cardiosclerosis - causes and classification
Currently, according to the classification proposed by WHO, isolated postmiokardichesky, atherosclerotic and myocardial infarction. Let us consider each of these in more detail.
Postmiokardicheskaya form develops in the place where it was recorded miokradita inflammation. Replacement tissue caused by destructive changes of myocytes and exudative processes. In most cases, postmiokardichesky cardio seen in young people. Its characteristic feature is the presence of lesions and concomitant allergic or infectious diseases. The size of the heart - increased, almost always have symptoms of heart failure and circulatory disorders of right ventricular type.
Atherosclerotic cardiosclerosis - symptoms develop slowly, because what remains scarce clinical symptoms for a long period of time. For atherosclerotic forms are characteristic: diffuse changes, progressive degeneration of the fibers, metabolic disorders and atrophy of certain areas of the myocardium. Almost always atherosclerotic cardio accompanied by symptoms of heart failure - edema, shortness of breath, palpitations and edema cavities. Often, this leads to a form of bradycardia and development of aortic stenosis.
Myocardial infarction - the treatment of the pathology is required after myocardial infarction. The disease has a focal character, manifested as a result of the replacement of the heart muscle tissue of young connective tissue. Clinical symptoms are similar to those of atherosclerotic form. First of all, they should include abnormal heart rhythm and conduction.
Cardiosclerosis - symptoms
Signs of disease, we will consider, depending on the type of disease. The most common myocardial kardiosklerosis manifested as arrhythmias, cardiac conduction disturbances and chronic heart failure.
Atherosclerotic cardiosclerosis cause valvular and angina. Furthermore, the process of replacement tissues leads to the development of heart aneurysm. The disease - a slow, progressive.
Cardiosclerosis - Treatment and prognosis
Therapeutic measures should be aimed at addressing the underlying disease that caused the cardio. Patients prescribed means of restoring the function of the heart arrhythmia and blockades, as well as drugs that eliminate symptoms of heart failure, and improves the condition of the myocardial fibers. If a person has been heavy, running cardio, treatment may require implantation of a pacemaker.
Note that for successful treatment is necessary to limit the exercise, follow the advice of the doctor and to eat. Patients showing the following limitations in food:
- restriction of salt and free fluid;
- an exception to the usual diet of foods that excite the cardiovascular system and central nervous system (alcohol, strong tea, coffee, cocoa);
- the rejection of meat and fried foods;
- limiting consumption of onions, radishes, radish and garlic;
- complete rejection of food, flatulence (cabbage, milk, beans);
- It is desirable to minimize the use of egg yolk, animal internal organs and other foods containing high doses of cholesterol.