Bronchiectasis - a painful condition, which is determined by localized irreversible expansion of the so-called bronchial tree caused by the destruction of muscle and elastic tissue. Bronchiectasis is classified
as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as well as emphysema, bronchitis, asthma, and cystic fibrosis. Bronchiectasis lungs may result from a variety of infectious diseases, including severe and recurrent pneumonia, tuberculosis and cystic fibrosis.
Bronchiectasis lungs are congenital and acquired. They can be diagnosed by means of clinical assays. It is recommended to confirm the diagnosis carried out computer tomography, which can reveal abnormalities of the bronchial tree and existing cysts. Also, diagnosis of the disease usually involves blood and sputum, and sometimes tests for specific genetic disorders.
Also, diagnosis of bronchiectasis includes the following steps:
- Check the history of chronic respiratory symptoms (daily cough and phlegm);
- Analysis of sputum;
- Chest x-ray;
- Check quantitative immunoglobulin levels to avoid hypogammaglobulinemia;
- Autoimmune screening tests.
In order to prevent bronchiectasis in childhood is necessary to vaccinate children against measles, whooping cough and other acute respiratory infections for children. A healthy body mass index, and regular visits to the doctor can have a beneficial effect on the prevention of the progression of bronchiectasis.
Causes of bronchiectasis
Causes of congenital bronchiectasis nature are:
- Congenital infection that affect the movement of ions;
- Kartagener Syndrome;
- Cystic fibrosis;
- Young's syndrome;
- Immune deficiency;
- Syndrome of Williams-Campbell;
- Marfan syndrome.
Causes of bronchiectasis acquired nature are such diseases as:
- Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis;
- Bronchial tumors;
- Staphylococcus aureus;
- Pulmonary aspiration;
- Ulcerative colitis;
- Crohn's disease;
- A hiatal hernia;
- rheumatoid arthritis.
Also cause bronchiectasis may be poisoned by toxic gases, alcoholism, drug use
and various allergies affecting the bronchus.
Symptoms of bronchiectasis
Symptoms of bronchiectasis include:
- Of the green or yellow sputum (up to 240 ml per day);
- Bad breath;
- The frequent bronchial infections;
- Shortness of breath;
- Wheezing during inhalation and exhalation.
Aggravation of bronchiectasis caused by bacterial infection can cause the following symptoms:
- Increased sputum, compared with the initial stage;
- The increased viscosity of phlegm;
- Odors released sputum;
- Low-grade fever;
- Increased constitutional symptoms (fatigue, malaise);
- Increased shortness of breath, difficulty breathing and pain in the lungs.
Treatment of bronchiectasis
Treatment of bronchiectasis includes managing bronhoektaziynoy infection relief from airway obstruction, removing the affected parts of the lungs through surgery or embolization of the arteries. Treatment includes prolonged use of antibiotics to prevent infections, as well as eliminating accumulated fluid using postural drainage and chest physiotherapy.
Surgery may also be used to treat localized bronchiectasis and remove obstacles that may cause the disease.
Conducting inhalation steroid therapy may reduce mucus and narrow airways within a short period of time, and also help to prevent the progression of bronchiectasis. This procedure is not recommended for the treatment of bronchiectasis in children.