Gliosis - a process of replacement of deformed or lost as a result of a variety of tissue damage in the central nervous system glial cells (glia).
Localization and character proliferation of glial cells are divided into the following types of gliosis:
- Anizomorfny - sprawling glial fibers are arranged randomly;
- The fiber - glial fibers produced more pronounced than glial cell elements;
- Diffuse - it covers large areas of the brain, the spinal cord;
- Isomorphic - sprawling glial fibers are positioned with respect to the right;
- Marginal - glial fibers mainly grow in podobolochechnyh areas of the brain;
- Perivascular - glial fibers are arranged around sclerosed inflamed blood vessels;
- Subependymal - glial fibers are formed beneath the ependyma brain regions.
A special mechanism for replacement of destroyed tissue, gliosis develops in nerve tissue damage as a result of their structural units - the neurons, replacing them sprawling glial cells. Expanding, these cells are isolated pockets of damage, protecting intact tissue. Simplistically gliosis can be compared with a scar or scar tissue in the central nervous system.
Types of cells that make up the central nervous system:
- Neurons - the main cells that generate and transmit pulses;
- Ependymoma - the cells lining the central canal of the spinal and brain ventricles;
- Glia (glia) - support cells of the nervous tissue, constitute 40-50% of the central nervous system. Glial cells in the nerve tissue ahead of neurons 10-50 times. Their function - protection and restoration of nerve tissue after injuries and infections, as well as ensuring the work of metabolic processes in the central nervous system.
The growth of glial cells is in the form of education at the site of damage foci of gliosis. The amount of gliosis - a specific value, calculated from the ratio of increased glial cells of the CNS to the rest of cells per unit volume. Quantitative value gliosis - the value is directly proportional to the volume of healing damage in the body.
Pockets of gliosis
Outbreaks gliosis - abnormal growths accumulations of glial cells that replace damaged neurons.
The emergence of foci of gliosis is a consequence of pathological processes and diseases:
- Multiple sclerosis;
- Tuberous sclerosis;
- Inflammation - encephalitis of different origin;
- Birth injuries;
- Prolonged hypertension;
- Chronic hypertensive encephalopathy.
To detect foci of gliosis necessary to MRI, the results of which can not only determine the dislocation of foci of gliosis and their size, but in some cases even get information about the limitations of education. This allows the neurologist on conjunction with other forms of research and clinical examination to find out the result of an active process or transferred CNS is the focus of gliosis.
Gliosis may not manifested clinically, discovered by chance during examination for other indications. Please be aware that the conclusion of the MRI "signs of gliosis" - is not a diagnosis, but a reason to undergo a comprehensive medical examination by a specialist neurologist. Whatever the result of this survey is not necessary to treat the center of gliosis, and the disease that caused its appearance.
Gliosis of the brain - a disease which is caused by a genetic abnormality of lipid metabolism, leading to the defeat of the central nervous system. Quite rare. Called mutation of the gene responsible for synthesis of geksozoaminidazy A - an enzyme involved in the metabolism of gangliosides. Accumulate in the cells of the CNS, gangliosides violate their work. Type inheritance - autosomal recessive, thus the likelihood of conception exist if carriers of the mutant gene of both parents, and in this case it is 25%.
The most common hereditary disease Tay-Sachs - a consequence of a genetic disease, mainly as a result of the child's conception of close relatives. Newborn with gliosis first months of life the brain develops normally for 4-6 months in physical and mental development occurs regression. Lose their hearing, vision, ability to swallow, there are convulsions, muscle atrophy and paralysis. The maximum duration of life of children with cerebral gliosis 2-4 years.
You need to know - gliosis treatment can not be, since it is not an independent disease, but a consequence of a variety of pathological processes. Finding gliosis, treat the cause to prevent the development of new foci of gliosis.
In the presence of foci of gliosis should take preventive measures in order to prevent their proliferation. First of all you must renounce the use of fatty foods in large quantities, because it is detrimental to the brain. A large amount of fat ingested, damage and kill neurons regulate body weight. Within 7 months supersaturated fats supply the number of neurons is greatly reduced, and gliosis foci grow, replacing dead neurons.
In the case of hereditary disease of fat metabolism specific treatment gliosis no brain. At 18-20 weeks of gestation according to the analysis of amniotic fluid can establish the diagnosis. In the presence of the disease in the fetus is necessary to terminate a pregnancy.
Important in the prevention of gliosis - a healthy lifestyle and regular check-ups by specialists. Treat gliosis is impossible, and to prevent or stop the real.