Brief description of the disease
Bedsores - is damaged skin, which are caused by compression of tissue on prolonged contact with the solid surface (bed, wheelchair, bus, etc.) Bedsores are caused by bleeding, and necrosis of tissue at the site of compression of the skin.
The causes of bedsores
As is known, the power and oxygen saturation of the skin is due to the presence therein of blood vessels. The smallest of these, called capillaries penetrate each centimeter of skin and feed it. Prolonged compression of the blood vessels clamped and the blood does not flow. This leads to the fact that certain portions of the skin bled, and necrosis occurs.
Another of the causes of pressure ulcers is the displacement of the upper layers of the skin. It occurs when the patient on the bed trying to pull or pull them under a vessel or wet clothes. This can lead to disruption of blood supply, resulting in formation of bedsores.
Risk factors for pressure ulcers
The most susceptible to the appearance of bedsores are people who are overweight or, conversely, emaciation, poor nutrition and a little drunk, have a history of diabetes or heart disease, a lot of sweat, have a injury of the brain and spinal cord, are incontinent of urine and feces. Also, unfavorable factors are considered dirty skin, folds and seams on the bed, the presence of crumbs and small objects, as well as allergies to care for the skin.
Parts of the body over bony prominences, which are in contact with a solid surface, the most susceptible to bedsores. This is due to the almost complete lack in these areas adipose tissue, which is capable of reducing the pressure on the tissue.
If a person is a long time lying on his back, the bed sores are formed on the sacrum, ischial tuberosity, shoulder blades, back of the head, heels and elbows.
When lying on your side bedsores are formed on the hips in the greater trochanter on the knees and ankles.
Long position in the stomach leads to necrosis of pubic and cheekbones.
The severity of pressure ulcers
Depending on the severity of pressure ulcers are divided into six stages:
Stage I - there is redness of the skin is squeezed;
Stage II - the skin swells, blisters, begins necrosis (death of) the upper layer of the skin;
Stage III - appear on the skin ulcers;
Stage IV - ulcer grow and penetrate the muscle layer;
V stage - going numbness and muscle breakdown;
Stage VI - the most severe stage, the ulcer reaches bone, which can be damaged and infected.
Prevention of bedsores
Preventing pressure ulcers includes a number of measures aimed at reducing the compression of tissues and maintain normal blood circulation in the skin.
For bedridden patients it is of great importance meticulous care, the best expert - nursing
. To decrease the compression of the tissue bed-patients need to purchase soft and elastic mattress
. For sale is a special mattress from pressure sores, which has the effect of massage, improving blood circulation in certain areas of the skin
. You can also use a foam mattress if you can not buy a mattress from bedsores
. It should be as often as possible to change the position of the body of the patient, and it should be done accurately enough to avoid friction and displacement of the soft tissue
. The bed of the patient should be smooth and clean, free of crumbs and foreign objects
. By areas of the body where the sores usually occur, you must enclose the rollers or pads of soft foam
. Under the sacrum can put special rubber circle
. All of these devices (rollers, the mattress from bedsores) increase the area of the body that comes into contact with the surface on which the patient
. This considerably improves blood circulation in tissues, and reduces the risk of bedsores
Decubitus prevention also includes correct and careful turning a patient with minimum risk of damage and abrasion of soft tissue. If you can not handle alone, looking for an assistant. Do not pull out and pull wet clothes and sheets from the patient, it must first be lifted. All manipulations of skin care products and bedding should be carried out carefully and gently.
To reduce skin irritation, use a mild laundry (the more washes, the softer bed) without seams, patches and buttons. For toilet use soft leather low-allergenic cosmetics. More frequent toilet of genitals and perineum, as urine and feces tend to irritate the skin. Ensure optimum temperature in the room, hide and wear, depending on the patient's temperature, avoiding overheating. Sweat irritates the skin and increases the risk of ulcers.
Proper skin care is a means of preventing bedsores. Do not allow the skin to be too wet or dry, watch its purity. Use a moisturizing and nourishing cream, powder, dries ointment. Do not rub your skin while bathing the body and wipe the patient and easy to soak through. Sponges and washcloths should be soft. Incontinence use diapers or urinals (for men).
The treatment of pressure ulcers
No cure bedsores not help completely eliminate the problem as long as there is no compression of the tissue removed. The main treatment of bedsores should be aimed at the restoration of blood flow in the damaged tissues. For this purpose, all measures for the prevention of bedsores.
For tissue rejection unproductive use different means of pressure sores. A good effect has the ointment "Iruksol." For faster healing of wounds must use gauze soaked with petroleum jelly. You can apply a special hydrocolloid dressings, if you have the opportunity to buy them (they are quite expensive). Also, there are special means healing of bedsores, as various ointments. You can use sea buckthorn oil. With the development of a secondary infection that often occurs when pressure ulcers, use antibacterial agents.
Treatment of pressure sores, which are large and difficult to heal, produced only by surgery (transplantation of tissue).