General characteristics of the disease
Bacterial vaginosis is fairly common infectious disease. It is caused by the bacterium Gardnerella vaginalis, got on the vaginal mucosa. A small number of these microorganisms can be observed in healthy women. By the manifestation of symptoms gardnerellёza leads only increased concentration of bacteria Gardnerella vaginalis in the vagina.
Bacterial vaginosis is transmitted sexually and is found in about 20% of women of fertile (childbearing age). Contributing factors are considered to bacterial vaginosis pregnancy, menopause, hormonal balance disorders, diabetes and other endocrine disorders. The incubation period from infection to manifestation of Gardnerella vaginalis first symptoms of bacterial vaginosis is 3-10 days. Men vaginosis occurs not less, but because of the asymptomatic disease to diagnose abnormalities at an early stage is much harder.
Symptoms of bacterial vaginosis in women
The most favorable breeding ground for bacteria Gardnerella vaginalis is the vagina. Bacterial vaginosis in women starts with the mass reproduction of the organism and gradual replacement of bacteria that form the normal environment of the vagina. Abnormal vaginal microbiocenosis leads to demonstrate the main symptoms of bacterial vaginosis: a gynecological inflammation, abundant grayish-green secretions with a specific fishy odor, itching, burning.
Symptoms of bacterial vaginosis worse after intercourse. In advanced cases of bacterial vaginosis in women can develop into hemorrhagic cystitis or pyelonephritis. In pregnant women the disease often leads to uterine bleeding, early rupture of membranes and preterm labor, postpartum endometritis and low weight of the newborn.
Bacterial vaginosis in men
Bacterial vaginosis in men is considered a specific disease is transmitted exclusively through sex. The peculiarity of this disease is that the male body in most cases the bacterium Gardnerella vaginalis is benign. Serious reproductive health problems can occur with bacterial vaginosis in men but with significantly reduced immunity or high concentrations of pathogens. Medicine gardnerellёza known cases in men, leading to urethritis, prostatitis and epididymitis (inflammation of the testes). However, all these serious complications of bacterial vaginosis in men are the exception rather than the rule. Typically, the male body copes with pathogen for 2-3 days. Sometimes develops carrier Gardnerella vaginalis bacteria without showing any symptoms of bacterial vaginosis in men.
Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis
For the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in women applied laboratory research secretions and exfoliated cells of the vaginal mucosa. The presence of the disease indicates an increase in the acidity of the vaginal environment more than 4, pH 5, a positive amine test, confirming the increased number of anaerobic bacteria, as well as the detection of micro-organisms Gardnerella vaginalis themselves in exfoliated cells of the vaginal epithelium. By itself, the pathogenic bacteria is not a symptom of bacterial vaginosis, as small amounts of pathogen, and allowed a healthy person.
The most informative method for the quantitative determination of bacterial vaginosis in women is considered the technology of PCR (polymerase chain reaction). It can also be used in the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in men for the analysis of urine, semen, scraping the urogenital tract and prostatic secretions. The sensitivity of this method up to 100%.
Treatment of bacterial vaginosis
Treatment of bacterial vaginosis in women - a complex, involves the simultaneous reduction in the number of pathogenic micro-organisms settling securities vaginal lactobacilli and a general increase in immunity. Destruction Gardnerella vaginalis occurs typically via a local antibiotic therapy. Immunity strengthens the appointment of immunomodulators. The most difficult and time-consuming step in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis in women is considered to be the population of the vagina beneficial bacteria. For this purpose, applied eubitotiki with live bacterial cultures.
The effectiveness of the treatment of bacterial vaginosis in women based on the results of control tests, which are conducted every 4-6 weeks. Treatment gardnerellёza men - local, usually without the use of antibiotic therapy. In order to avoid repetition of infection required treatment of both sexual partners. For the entire period of treatment bacterial vaginosis patients are advised to use a barrier method of contraception.
Prevention of bacterial vaginosis
Prevention of the disease in men is to use condoms during casual sex, as well as early diagnosis and treatment of bacterial vaginosis in women - regular sexual partner. To avoid the development of bacterial vaginosis in women is possible through a healthy lifestyle and careful attitude to health: with nutritious food, enough sleep, hypothermia and lack of regular visits to the gynecologist.