Atrophic rhinitis is ozena or chronic inflammation of the nasal mucosa, which is characterized by atrophy of the mucosa, as well as being stored in the nerve endings. Atrophic Rhinitis is of two types - primary and secondary atrophic rhinitis atrophic rhinitis.
Organisms that reproduce in atrophic rhinitis, exude an unpleasant odor from the nasal cavity that did not feel sick, since the center is responsible for odor perception atrophies. Patients typically complain of nasal congestion, despite the fact that the nasal cavity is empty, which may be caused due to the loss of sensitivity due to atrophy of nerves in the nose, so that the patient does not feel the inspiratory air stream.
The disease is most common in women and tend to appear during puberty, but can occur at one year of age.
Infections such as syphilis, leprosy or lupus can lead to the destruction of the nasal structure and atrophic changes. Atrophic rhinitis may also be the result of long-standing purulent sinusitis, radiation therapy, or surgical removal of the nasal turbinates.
Causes of atrophic rhinitis
The most common causes of chronic atrophic rhinitis are:
- The extensive destruction of the mucous membrane of the nose and nasal turbinates during nose surgery;
- Chronic sinusitis;
- Nutritional deficiencies;
- Endocrine imbalances;
- Granulomatous infections, such as leprosy, syphilis, tuberculosis and others.
The main factors contributing to chronic atrophic rhinitis include:
- Atrophic rhinitis tends to begin during puberty;
- Caucasian and Mongoloid race is more susceptible to the disease than people from equatorial Africa;
- Deficiency of vitamins A, D, or iron;
- Infections Klebsiella ozaenae, Proteus, and other diphtheroids;
- Autoimmune infection;
- The disease is inherited.
Symptoms of atrophic rhinitis
The most common symptoms of atrophic rhinitis are:
- Nasal congestion;
- The dryness of the nasal cavity;
- Psychological depression;
- Green, black, or yellow crusts in the nasal cavity.
Infectious atrophic rhinitis
Infectious atrophic rhinitis - a chronic disease, which manifests itself in the form of sero-purulent inflammation of the nasal mucosa, resulting in the atrophy of the turbinates and the deformation of the skull bones.
The causes of infectious atrophic rhinitis considered Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a bacterium Bordetella Bronchiseptica and Mycoplasma.
Signs of infection atrophic rhinitis are sneezing, a runny nose and the gradually increasing conjunctivitis at normal or elevated temperatures. Patients are anxious, shaking his head, they decreased appetite and they dramatically lose weight. In the future, the symmetry is violated on both sides of the jaw, there is a rough, first one-sided, double-sided and then, there is a softening and a deviated septum to the right or left side. Under the eyes appear puffy bags, puffiness and paresis in the head.
Infectious atrophic rhinitis is treated with a weak solution of iodine wash, a weak solution of broth of garlic, potassium permanganate followed by lysozyme, penicillin and streptomycin.
Treatment of atrophic rhinitis
Treatment of atrophic rhinitis or medication may be by means of surgical intervention.
Medical treatment of atrophic rhinitis include possible procedures and medications used:
- Nasal irrigation with saline nasal cavity;
- Nasal irrigation and remove crusts using alkaline solutions;
- 25% glucose with glycerol applied to the nasal mucosa, to suppress the growth of malodorous proteolytic microorganisms;
- Topical antibiotics such as chloramphenicol;
- Estradiol and vitamin D2;
- Estradiol Spray;
- Systemic streptomycin;
- Potassium iodide;
- Placenta extract injected into the submucosa;
- Operations Jung;
- The narrowing of the nasal cavity, submucosal injection of Teflon paste section and medial displacement of the lateral wall of the nose;
- Transfer duct of the parotid gland in the maxillary sinus or nasal mucosa.