Cyst of the brain - the pathological formation of a hollow filled with liquid, similar in composition to the cerebrospinal fluid, which has a different location in the brain. There are two main types of brain cysts: Arachnoid, retrotserebellyarnaya cysts.
Arachnoid cysts of the brain - sound hollow formation of a liquid-filled, formed on the surface of the brain in his spider (arachnoid) membranes.
Arachnoid mater - one of the three meninges, located between the hard shell of the brain surface and deep pia mater.
The walls of the arachnoid cysts are formed by the cells of the arachnoid or brain (primary cyst) or cicatricial collagen (secondary cyst). Arachnoid cysts can be of two types:
- Primary or congenital arachnoid cysts is a consequence of developmental abnormalities of the meninges of the fetus from exposure to physical and chemical factors (drugs, radiation exposure, toxic agents);
- Secondary or acquired arachnoid cysts is a consequence of different diseases (meningitis, agenesis of the corpus callosum) or complication after trauma, surgery (contusions, concussions, mechanical damage to the outer shell of the brain).
In most cases, the development of arachnoid cysts are asymptomatic. Pronounced neurological symptoms is present only in 20% of cases.
Among the factors influencing the emergence and growth of arachnoid cysts release:
- Inflammation of the meninges (the virus infection of, arachnoiditis);
- The increase of fluid pressure inside the cystic formation;
- Concussion or any other damage to the brain in a patient with previously formed arachnoid cyst.
The symptoms of arachnoid cysts retrotserebellyarnoy
In most cases, the cysts of the brain (Arachnoid, retrotserebellyarnaya cysts) are asymptomatic. These tumors are detected at the next examination of the patient or for the diagnosis of neurological diseases similar symptoms. The symptoms of arachnoid cysts nonspecific. Severity of symptoms arachnoid, cyst retrotserebellyarnoy depends on the location and dimensions of education. Most patients have cerebral symptoms associated with the compression of certain areas of the brain. Very rarely observed focal symptoms caused by the formation of hygroma, rupture of arachnoid cyst.
The main symptoms of the arachnoid, cyst retrotserebellyarnoy:
- Vertigo not caused by other factors (fatigue, anemia, medication, pregnant women);
- Nausea, vomiting, not due to other factors (the administration of drugs, poisoning, and other diseases);
- Hallucinations, mental disorders;
- loss of consciousness;
- Numbness in the limbs, hemiparesis;
- Headaches, loss of coordination;
- The feeling of pulsation, fullness in the head;
- Hearing, vision;
- A clear recognition of the noise in your ears while maintaining the hearing;
- The feeling of heaviness in the head;
- Increased pain when moving head.
It should be noted that the secondary type of arachnoid cysts the clinical picture can be supplemented with the symptoms of the underlying disease or injury, which is the root cause of the formation of a cystic cavity.
Arachnoid cyst diagnosis CSF
For the diagnosis of arachnoid cysts are cerebrospinal fluid (cysts filled with CSF) used a variety of methods. Chief among them are magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography to detect cystic formation, determining its location, size. Intravenous contrast allows us to differentiate arachnoid cyst liquor from the tumor (tumor accumulates contrast, there is a cyst).
Keep in mind that arachnoid cysts usually is a consequence of another neurological disease or dysfunction of any organ system. In order to identify the root causes of the arachnoid cyst apply the following diagnostic methods:
- Blood tests to detect viral infections, autoimmune diseases;
- Tests of blood clotting and cholesterol levels;
- Doppler can detect violation of vascular permeability, resulting in growing lack of blood supply to the brain;
- Monitoring blood pressure fixing pressure fluctuations per day;
- Studies of heart.
The exact identification of the causes of the arachnoid cyst allows you to choose the best ways to treat cystic formation and minimize the risk of recurrence.
Treatment of arachnoid cysts
According to the dynamics of development of arachnoid cysts are distinguished stilled cysts and progressive cyst. As a rule, stilled education do not cause pain to the patient, do not pose a risk for normal brain activity. In this case, treatment of arachnoid cysts is not required. If you missed first trimester forms cysts diagnosis and treatment are aimed at identifying the root causes of the formation of cysts, as well as the elimination and prevention of the factors contributing to the formation of new cysts.
With progressive type of cysts treatment arachnoid cysts involves a set of measures aimed at identifying and eliminating the causes of cysts, as well as the direct removal of the cyst.
Drug treatment of arachnoid cysts is to eliminate inflammation, normalization of cerebral blood supply, restoration of damaged brain cells.
With the ineffectiveness or inefficiency of conservative methods of treatment of the arachnoid cyst used radical methods. The indications for surgery are:
- The risk of rupture of the arachnoid cyst;
- Mental status of patients with participating convulsive and epileptic seizures;
- Increased intracranial pressure;
- Strengthening of focal symptoms.
The main methods of surgical treatment of arachnoid cysts are:
- Drainage - removal of fluid from the cavity through the needle aspiration;
- Bypass - the creation of drainage for the outflow of the fluid;
- Fenestration - excision of the cyst.
Arachnoid cysts: consequences forecasts, complications
With timely diagnosis and treatment of arachnoid cysts very favorable forecasts. The main risks associated with the development of arachnoid cysts are squeezing gain exposure to body cyst on the brain centers, causing abnormalities in the body, as well as cysts rupture. After removal of the arachnoid cyst consequences can be hearing loss and vision, speech function. With late diagnosis arachnoid cyst consequences can be extremely dangerous (hydrocephalus, brain herniation, and death).