Apraxia (inaction, inaction) - a disease in which the patient can not perform any movements or gestures, though
It has the physical ability and willingness to implement them. When the disease affects the cerebral hemispheres of the brain, as well as the pathways of the corpus callosum. Apraxia can occur after a stroke, brain tumors, brain trauma, infections, degenerative brain diseases (Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, Huntington's disease, corticobasal ganglionic degeneration).
Types of apraxia
There are one-sided apraxia, in which movement disorders appear only on one side of the face or body, and two-way. This disease is classified according to the symptomatic manifestations, as well as on the location of the lesion of the cerebral hemispheres. According to the location in the brain secrete the frontal, motor, premotor, and bilateral cortical apraxia. If the sequence is broken apraxia frontal motor acts as a result of the defeat of the prefrontal cerebral hemispheres. When motor apraxia patient is able to plan the necessary actions, but to execute them, he can not. When apraxia premotor affected premotor area of the cerebral cortex, resulting in lost the ability to transform simple movements to more complex. Bilateral apraxia occurs when the defeat of bilateral inferior parietal lobe of the cerebral hemispheres.
According to the types of cognitive disorders and skills apraxia is akinesticheskoy, amnestic, ideatornoy, ideokineticheskoy, articulation, kinesthetic, constructive, oral, spatial and afferent
. The most difficult type of disease is the articulation apraxia
. Articulating apraxia is characterized by the patient's inability to articulate words to say, despite the absence of paresis and paralysis of articulation
. Akinesticheskaya apraxia is caused by insufficient motivation to move
. Amnestic form of the disease characterized by impaired voluntary movement
. Ideatornoy - inability to identify the sequence of actions for false movements
. Kinesthetic type of disease characterized by impaired voluntary motor acts
. If a constructive form of the disease the patient is not able to make a thing of the individual parts
. Spatial apraxia - a violation of orientation in space
Types of motor apraxia
When motor apraxia is a violation and spontaneous actions, and actions to imitate. This kind of disease is most often one-sided. Motor apraxia is divided into two types - melokineticheskuyu and ideokineticheskuyu. When apraxia ideokineticheskoy patient is unable to consciously perform simple movements, but can execute them by accident. Simple actions it performs well, but not on orders. The patient usually confuse motion (instead of touching the nose and ear. T. H.). Melokineticheskaya apraxia manifested in the distortion of the structure of the movements that make up a specific action and replacing them with a vague gesture in the form Moving the moving apart and fingers instead of a fist or threaten with a finger.
Afferent apraxia usually develops on the background of defeat postcentral (parietal) of the cerebral cortex. This disease
characterized by the inability to reproduce the individual patient posture (finger and carpal, oral and articulation). However, these pose a given form of the disease can be easily reproduced with the usual involuntary actions - dressing, eating.
Constructive apraxia is considered a special and the most common kind of disease. It develops in lesions of the parietal lobe, both right and left hemispheres. In this disease the patient is difficult or may not represent, srisovat memory of animals and human figures, geometric shapes. Thus the patient deforms the contours of the object, not dorisovyvaet its individual elements and parts. When copying a person's face, he can draw one eye over the other, not to draw some part of the face. When constructive apraxia have difficulty with the choice of places for drawing on paper.
Treatment of apraxia
The treatment involved apraxia of Psychiatry and Neurology, everything depends on the type and causes of violations. Most often appointed individual schemes of treatment with physiotherapy, speech therapy, and labor training. Patients with these disorders requires a psychologist, nurse and social worker.