Anorexia nervosa - a disease characterized by disruption of normal eating behavior. Anorexia patients show increased attention to its own weight and tend to almost completely restrict yourself in food consumption. But people with anorexia are so afraid to type at least one extra kilogram that almost brought himself to exhaustion.
According to statistics, the disease mostly young girls exposed to, sometimes even very young people, who are much more than other age groups tend to be influenced from outside and react badly to criticism. Disease begins with the fact that a girl who dreams to lose weight, sits on a diet, and so interested in, even when it becomes a weight of 15-20% below normal, it still seems that it is too thick.
For young girls like disease is especially dangerous because their body is still in the stage of growth and development. As a result, instead of a beautiful, wholesome young woman seen surrounding a disembodied ghost with black eyes and pale skin. In addition to the external signs of anorexia contributes to the emergence of a number of diseases of the endocrine, nervous and cardiovascular systems, musculoskeletal system. This is due to the fact that at the time, especially when the body needs a lot of nutrients, patients with anorexia, on the contrary, starve themselves, causing irreparable harm to the body.
The main reasons that lead girls to anorexia are:
- unhealthy psychological atmosphere in the family;
- a negative atmosphere around meals;
- distorted perception of their own body and too low self-esteem;
- obsessive and fixated behavior, perfectionism;
- struggle with obstacles;
- unmet need for love and acceptance.
The symptoms of anorexia
As a rule, patients with anorexia do not recognize a similar problem, so the first symptoms of anorexia usually become noticeable to family and friends.
If the family did not begin to sound the alarm, the pursuit of the ideal weight for a patient could end up quite miserably: sometimes under the threat is not only health but also the girl's life.
The most important symptom of anorexia is severe weight loss, sometimes in a relatively short time. Unfortunately, this feature becomes visible only when the depletion of approaching a critical point. Until that moment around just it seems that she decided to throw a couple of extra kilos.
Another symptom of anorexia, which also should pay attention to - loss of appetite, and a significant reduction in the size of the portions eaten food at a time. When anorexia nervosa and girls often do refuse meals, finding a lot of excuses (tired recently snack, stomach ache, etc.).
It should be noted that, despite the refusal of food, patients with anorexia love to talk about food, especially the various diets and ways of burning calories. Many women suffering from anorexia nervosa spend almost all my free time in the kitchen preparing meals. It should only reach the absorption of these dishes, all appetite disappears somewhere.
As the progression of anorexia patient's overall health significantly deteriorated. It is noted in the following clinical symptoms of anorexia:
- Fatigue. Anorexia patients experiencing general weakness, and quickly get tired. This is due to the fact that there is no place to take the body the necessary energy and has to use internal reserves, which are not unlimited. All this leads to excessive sleepiness and frequent fainting.
- The deterioration of the hair and nails. Hair loses shine and beauty, becoming dull and start to split. Naturally, no one agent for hair in this case can not help. The organism deprived of essential vitamins and minerals, this leads to the fact that the nails and the hair becomes dry and brittle.
- Changing the status of the skin. The complexion becomes pale, and under the eyes lie deep shadows. Usually, the cause of this is iron deficiency anemia, which is always a complication of anorexia nervosa. Anorexia often cause problems with the kidneys, causing the skin feet and hands a distinctive bluish tint, resulting from poor microcirculation. For this reason, patients with anorexia always feel cold.
- Amenorrhea or complete disappearance of menstruation. The mechanism of this symptom doctors are still not fully understood. Most likely, amenorrhea occurs as a result of that body for a long time deprived of much-needed nutrients, which adversely affects the hormonal background, causing various malfunctions in the body. Some doctors believe that amenorrhea is caused by a violation of the psychological condition of the woman. In any case, the indication shows that the disease has gone far enough, and the girl can not do without skilled medical care.
- Other diseases. Various complications and disease result from a lack of vitamins and trace elements. The body is under constant stress, and very difficult to predict what it may mean for the girls. In some cases, there are serious problems with the gastrointestinal tract, impaired endocrine and central nervous systems, the development of osteoporosis.
Treatment of anorexia
As a rule, the treatment of anorexia nervosa - a long process that takes several years. The process itself is quite difficult to treat and requires patients with anorexia great desire to defeat the disease. According to statistics, about 60% of patients subsequently returned to a normal lifestyle. 20% of patients with anorexia nervosa recover almost completely, without complications and chronic diseases. However, in order to avoid subsequent relapse, all patients have to undergo regular examinations and additional therapy.
In the first stage of treatment of anorexia focuses on the restoration of physical health of the patient. Most patients require immediate hospitalization and are in critical condition. Eating these patients through a drip. After stabilizing the patient's condition gradually begin to accustom him to a normal diet, helping him to regain a healthy body weight.
In the second stage of treatment of anorexia patients a course of psychotherapy, in which the doctor and the patient together attempt to identify the main causes of the disease and ways to overcome them. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is usually used to help the patient to get rid of the misconception about their own weight.
In severe cases, the patient being prescribed antidepressants, which in the course of treatment of anorexia help to cope with anxiety states. However, doctors do not recommend taking them a long time.