Anal fissure - a violation of the integrity of the mucous membrane of the anus, which can cause both physical damage and natural physiological processes.
Anal fissure: the types of fractures, causes of and risk factors
Anal fissure - a defect of the mucous membrane of the anal canal. The crack in the anal canal - one of the most frequent causes of visit to the proctologist. Cracks may have a different localization. Injuries occur regardless of age and gender rights. Although according to statistics, most of the anal canal cracks prone young woman.
By the nature of the disease are acute and chronic anal fissures cracks. Acute anal fissure - a spontaneous violation of the integrity of the mucous membrane usually heal on their own within 1 - 2 days without the use of drugs. The sharp crack is smooth, smooth edges, slit-like shape, its bottom is the muscular tissue of the sphincter of the anus (the main muscle of the anal canal, holding the stool). Its length is rarely more than 2 cm. If you violate the progress of healing cracks defect becomes severe and develop chronic anal fissure.
Chronic fissures are formed from uncovered (nonhealing) sharp cracks that result from repeated mechanical damage to the increase in size and become infected with germs from faeces. The bottom edge and chronic cracks covered with beads fibrous plaque. In the long edges of the crack grows connective tissue, the edges are sealed themselves, undergoing trophic changes. In the area of chronic anal fissure formed portions of excess tissue that can later develop into fibrous polyps.
Acute anal fissures amenable to conservative treatment, while chronic anal fissure require surgical correction.
Among the many causes of anal fissures release:
- Damage to the mucous membrane of the anal passage of stool;
- Injuries tissues when injected into the anal canal foreign bodies (anal sex enema);
- Circulatory disorders of the rectal area;
- Diseases of the rectum (hemorrhoids);
- Violation of innervation of the rectum;
- Spasm of the sphincter;
- Violation of the chair (chronic diarrhea, constipation);
- The anatomical features of the structure of the anus.
Risk factors for anal fissures are:
- Disease (colitis, enterocolitis, haemorrhoids, stomach ulcers and duodenal ulcers, gastritis, cholecystitis);
- Improper diet, causing constipation and indigestion;
- Failure to observe personal hygiene;
- sedentary lifestyle.
Anal fissure: the symptoms of the defect of the anal canal
An anal fissure is characterized by the following symptoms:
- Spasm of anus (sphincter spasm);
- A sharp pain during defecation;
- Aching at rest;
- Blood in the stool;
- Slight spotting between acts of defecation;
- Difficult defecation;
- Purulent discharge from the anus with an unpleasant odor (for chronic anal fissures).
When symptoms of anal fissure is often copied symptoms of hemorrhoids, colon cancer. It is very important when it detects one of the symptoms promptly consult your doctor to rule out serious diseases that threaten the health and life of humans.
Anal fissure can often have no obvious symptoms. In the transition sharp crack in the chronic form, the patient may begin to disturb the pain of prolonged sitting, wearing a certain type of underwear.
In chronic forms of anal fissure, symptoms of which may be as specific symptoms (discharge of blood during bowel movements) and general signs (pain, difficulty defecating), increases the risk of inflammatory processes in improper treatment.
Anal fissure: surgery and conservative treatment
Acute anal fissures respond well to conservative therapies, whereas in chronic anal fissure surgery is the only effective treatment.
Before treatment anal fissures need to properly diagnose and fix the cause of the damage, as anal fissure is a consequence of the impact of the factors injuring the tissue of the anal opening.
Conservative treatment of anal fissure suggest normalization of stool and acts of defecation. It is recommended a special diet, stool softening oil micro enema laxatives drugs that should prescribe physician.
A good therapeutic effect have a thermal procedure: heating pads to the perineum, sessile hot tubs. The heat helps to relax the muscle tissues that help relieve spasm of the sphincter. It is also recommended the use of candles can help reduce pain, rapid healing of tissue.
In chronic anal fissure surgery is the most rapid, effective and painless method of eliminating the problem. By itself, a chronic crack delivers a significant physical and psychological discomfort. Conservative treatment can only make the problem worse. If within 2 weeks there is no improvement, then it performed surgical excision cracks. To prevent anal fissures operation also involves a partial sphincterotomy (partial dissection of the anal sphincter). The rehabilitation period after surgery lasts about a week, when patients showed bed rest, a special diet and drug therapy.
If anal fissures recur in a patient surgery without sphincterotomy only eliminate another crack, without solving the problem of new cracks in the future.
The prognosis after surgical excision of anal fissures is favorable. With proper timely treatment, anal fissures heal quickly.
Treatment for anal fissure folk remedies
Among the major folk treatments for rectal fissures emit swabs soaked herbal infusions. Thus, the introduction of tampons soaked in tincture of herbs (chamomile, calendula, oak bark) is one of the most effective treatments for rectal fissures traditional methods. Also for the impregnation of tampons used honey, castor oil, aloe juice and pulp. From herbs to treat anal fissure folk remedies used St. John's wort, celandine, yarrow, plantain, knotweed grass.
Treatment of rectal fissures folk remedies should be combined with a diet treatments to soften the stool (enemas, laxatives).
Folk remedies are the most effective in the rare cases of acute fracture, but with the growing over cracks in the chronic form it is recommended to consult a doctor immediately.