Amnesia is a disease associated with partial or complete loss of memory as a spontaneous and temporary or long-term and continuous type. The memory may return to the chronological principle of the most vivid memories.
Causes and symptoms of amnesia
Reasons for amnesia are of two main types - organic and psychological. Organic causes are associated with injuries, diseases of the brain and nervous system, alcoholism, drug addiction, as well as the influence of anti-depressants, sleeping pills and psychotropic substances.
Psychological causes of the disease are psychogenic in nature and are usually associated with trauma and stress.
The causes of amnesia can be traumatic brain injury, encephalitis, stroke, intoxication and suffocation, poisoning, toxic gases, ischemia and hypoxia.
If the disease is gradually growing in nature, it may be associated with pathological disorders and degenerative processes in the brain and the development of tumors and the manifestation of mental illness. Short-term memory loss often occurs due to cerebrovascular accidents, epilepsy, and acute migraine.
Amnesia may have symptoms as independent and combined with other diseases. Symptoms of amnesia are usually sudden or gradual loss of memory, confusion, loss of coordination, disorientation in time and space, the lack of ability to recognize people. Signs of amnesia can manifest in several minutes, hours or years.
Prolonged amnesia leads to a complete loss of memory and disorientation, but with proper treatment a patient can receive a full recovery.
Often the cause of amnesia in acute form is a severe alcohol dependence. In this case, appears Wernicke syndrome, which is accompanied by acute confusion, disturbance of cerebral function and the lack of self-identification.
Symptoms of amnesia syndrome Wernicke are drowsiness, visual and hearing impairment, poor coordination, muscle spasms and paralysis.
Types of amnesia
Currently, the medicine there are several basic types of amnesia:
- anterograde loss of the ability to store the events and people;
- Retrograde with the absence of memories to the onset of the disease;
- traumatic that arose after the injury incidence and impact;
- fixation with memory impairment for a few minutes;
- dissociated, which is a consequence of the trauma;
- Korsakoff's syndrome occurring in severe memory loss with prolonged on the basis of alcoholism;
- localized in violation of one or more modalities of memory associated with lesions of certain parts of the brain, and combined with the loss of memory for words, motor skills and learning objects;
- selective memory loss at a specific event, which bears the character of the psychic and stress;
- dissociative with serious consequences and a complete loss of memory of his patient's personality and background;
- children associated with birth injuries and age, emotions, stress, as well as delayed or stop the development of the brain.
Treatment of amnesia
In the first periods of the disease in the absence of progression amnesia treatment is carried out by methods neuropsychological rehabilitation patients. The treatment composition includes drugs that enhance the functioning of the brain, such as piracetam, semaks, encephabol, etc. gliatsitin
If the disease is traumatic in nature, the therapy is aimed at the treatment of the main consequences of physical injury.
When combined with amnesia syndrome Wernicke course of thiamine is administered intravenously to restore the functioning of the brain. Treatment is urgency because the disease is in advanced stage is often fatal.
Effective treatment of psychological type of amnesia is to conduct hypnosis sessions, the appointment of psychotherapy, as well as the course of action of antipsychotic drugs.