General characteristics of the disease
Amblyopia, or "lazy eye" - quite a common eye disease. This occurs because the pathologies of the visual system and leads to decrease in visual acuity. Most often, when amblyopia in adults or children vision correction needs only one eye. In this case, the disease is called one-sided. In severe farsightedness, nearsightedness or other pathologies in both eyes is called a bilateral amblyopia.
Often people do not even realize that he had amblyopia, and one of his bad eye sees. The brain of the patient gets used to receive the information from only one eye. This body of gradually becoming a leading and the second eye, without participating in the process of view, begins to deviate to the side. So when developing amblyopia strabismus - quite a common complication of the disease.
Amblyopia may develop on the background of acquired defects of the cornea, the lens of the eye or the century as a result of injuries, tumors, etc. However, the most common form of disease is a congenital amblyopia, which is diagnosed at an early age.
Amblyopia in Children
Amblyopia occurs in children, usually as a result of family history of farsightedness, astigmatism, or other vision problems. The disease is often diagnosed in premature babies or babies with low birth weight.
Amblyopia in children is fraught with serious complications. Unequal eyes work leads to a distortion of information coming into the brain of the child. As a result, the baby is deformed visual cortex and its neurons stop development. Therefore, in the case of late treatment of amblyopia in children younger patients vision may remain low, despite the elimination of the causes of the disease.
With timely treatment of amblyopia reversible defects. And the earlier start therapeutic measures, the more favorable prognosis. So, for example, in amblyopia in children with unilateral congenital cataract best results are achieved in the treatment of the disease during the first months of a child's life.
The types and extent of amblyopia
Amblyopia in children and adults with visual acuity to 0, 8-0, 4 called low-grade disease. Amblyopia by a factor of 0, 3-0, 2 is considered moderate pathology. If amblyopia with figures of 0, 1-0, 04 and below the diagnosed "high" or "very high degree of amblyopia."
Depending on the mechanism of the disease usually distinguished strabismic or refractive amblyopia. The first type of disease develops as a result of chronic disorders of binocular vision on a background of strabismus. To refractive amblyopia results ametropia (violation of the refractive power of the eye) with myopia or hyperopia.
Clouding of the eye (cataracts or cataract) may cause another type of amblyopia - of obscure. Anisometropic form of the disease - a consequence of the different refractive eye with astigmatism, caused by defects in the lens or cornea.
Diagnosis and treatment of amblyopia
The diagnosis of "amblyopia" establishes an ophthalmologist for a planned inspection of the child in the 1, 3 and 6 months. During a doctor checks the visual acuity, the movement and position of the eyes. Amblyopia in adults diagnosed during a baseline medical examination or if the patient complaints for vision problems. During diagnosis applies inverse and direct ophthalmoscopy, and various tests for testing visual acuity, quality index and field of view.
Traditional treatment for amblyopia - occlusion. So it called forced exclusion from the process of healthy eyes with special glasses with a plastic or rubber lens in the eye healthy. Mode of treatment of amblyopia by occlusion chooses doctor.
It is also possible vision correction using video-computer auto-training (GCA), the methods of stimulation for the eyes Avetisov through blinding retinal irritation or Küppers using successive images.
In the treatment of amblyopia in adults and children are used as a variety of therapeutic methods: wearing glasses, tumblers, ultrasonic and infrared laser therapy, vacuum massage, electrical stimulation and magnetic therapy.