General characteristics of the disease
An allergy is an overreaction of the body to exposure to certain environmental factors and stimuli that are perceived by them as potentially dangerous.
The answer to any immunity antigens invading the body, is very complex and involves the production of antibodies, which are a kind of protectors of the body. However, there are times when the immune system "loses control" and starts to perceive a completely harmless antigen as dangerous. It is in these moments and started a destructive overreaction, which manifests itself in the form of allergies.
Immunity is endowed with a remarkable memory, so if there was the first contact of the body with a foreign substance, and was shoved the mechanism of development of antibodies to neutralize the antigens, the process (allergy) will be repeated at each new meeting with the antigen (allergen).
Causes of allergies
Potentially cause allergy development can virtually any substance, as well as certain physical factors, such as low temperatures or exposure to sunlight.
The stimuli that trigger allergies, according to the origin divided into several groups:
- epidermal (outer allergic to components of the animals fur, dander, claws, feathers and so on. d.);
- fungal, and bacterial;
- other allergens.
All the above substances are allergens only if there is a failure of the immune system, otherwise - they do not cause allergy.
There are several major risk factors for allergy:
- Genetic predisposition. Researchers estimate suggests that if there is overreaction from one of the parents, the child will have an allergy to attend a 30% probability. These figures are doubled if both parents suffer from allergies.
- Smoking. For people prone to allergies, tobacco smoke is an activator run overreaction, and suffer from it, not only smokers but also people who breathe the smoke.
- Problems with the upper airway. A variety of respiratory tract infections and respiratory diseases are allergy provoking factors that because the viruses by damaging mucous membrane, facilitates the penetration of allergens into the body.
The disease can occur in several forms:
- Allergic respiratory tract: colds characterized by symptoms: clear discharge from the nose, frequent sneezing and multiple, but they appear much longer;
- Respiratory allergies: is manifested in the form of allergic rhinitis and asthma;
- Conjunctivitis: allergic symptoms in this case are expressed tear and burning in the eyes;
- Enteropathy: as such symptoms of allergies to drugs and food: vomiting, diarrhea, nausea, intestinal colic, constipation, swelling of the tongue and lips;
- Anaphylaxis this form of allergy is the most dangerous, and may occur in the range from a few seconds to several hours (usually five) after being deposited into the body of allergen. The cause of anaphylactic shock may be allergic to medications or animal bites, which is expressed as follows: loss of consciousness, seizures, severe shortness of breath, vomiting, rash on the body, uncontrollable urination and defecation. If you notice any of these allergy symptoms should immediately call an ambulance.
This type of allergy indicates that the mucous or blood allergen was manifested as redness and itching. Allergy skin most pronounced in those areas to which any tight clothing, or there is a large amount of skin folds.
Allergy skin may be a consequence of food allergy the body's reaction to a variety of food products, most of which are potentially dangerous honey, whole milk, nuts, citrus.
Not only food allergy, but also other kinds of diseases can cause symptoms on the skin, for example, pollen, animal dander, dust, household chemicals, medicines and some types of tissue can also be allergens. If you are allergic to cosmetics, read the first reviews of the cosmetics on the site makeit-up.ru before you apply it.
Allergy skin lesions from normal is characterized in that no elimination of the allergen lesions not amenable to the treatment modality.
Allergies in children
Symptoms of allergies in children are similar to the symptoms of allergy in adults:
2. rash on the body, buttocks, cheeks;
3. The flaking and irritation of the skin of the cheeks (diathesis);
4. excessive sweating, even in cases of mild overheating;
5. persistent diaper rash;
7. scaling on the scalp and eyebrows of the head;
8. The various manifestations of digestive disorders;
9. angioedema (sudden swelling of the mucous membranes, skin, subcutaneous tissue);
Identify allergies in children in several ways:
- Careful observation of the parents of when and under what conditions the symptoms of allergies in children are enhanced; In particular, it is recommended to keep a food diary and make it records regarding the reaction of the organism to various baby foods;
- Specific tests, for example, a blood test for IgE;
- Prick test, which can detect the substance causing allergies in children from the age of five: on the skin of the forearm to apply the minimum amount of an allergen, and there is the body's response to it.
The manifestation of allergies in children should be distinguished from pseudoallergic reactions that often indicate irregularities in the condition of the digestive tract.
The full removal and treatment of allergy should include general health of the body and strengthen the immune system, and effective treatment of allergy involves avoiding contact with allergens.
For drugs that traditional medicine is recommended for the treatment of allergies include:
- Anti-inflammatory drugs;
- Topical steroids;
- Mast cell stabilizers;