Respiratory tract obstruction syndrome, observed at any level from the pharynx to the bronchioles, called airway obstruction. In most cases the condition is caused by a decrease or complete closure of the lumen of the larynx, it becomes possible for the following reasons:
- Inhalation of a foreign body;
- Allergic, infectious and inflammatory diseases - bacterial tracheitis, Ludwig's angina, a fungal infection, retropharyngeal and peritonsillar abscess, laryngotracheobronchitis and diphtheria;
- Adenoids and lostintubatsionny swelling;
- Burns and injuries of the respiratory tract;
- Systemic disorders, tumors and cysts of the larynx;
- Hypertrophic tonsillitis;
- Neurological damage and posttraheostomichesky stenosis;
- Volume processes in near pneumatic ways and throat areas.
Also cause airway obstruction can act congenital diseases, that among these are:
- Craniofacial Anomalies area;
- Hypocalcemia and tracheoesophageal fistula;
- Laringomalyatsiya and laringotsele;
- Neurological disorders;
- Subglottic stenosis and vascular ring;
- Birth injuries;
- Tracheomalacia and tsistogigroma.
There are obstruction of the upper and lower respiratory tract, as well as two of their shape - lightning (acute) and chronic. Also in medicine are divided step airway obstruction, namely:
- End-stage asphyxiation.
Airway obstruction and hypoventilation (respiratory failure) occurs most often in patients at night. Hypoventilation enhanced with the growth of obstruction.
Patients or victims in a state of coma, obstruction can be provoked by the overlapping of the respiratory tract sunken language.
The symptoms of airway obstruction
Upper airway obstruction usually occurs in infants and young children due to the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the respiratory system. The symptom is that the state of the following symptoms:
- Increased work-contained breathing apparatus;
- Increased blood pressure and inspiratory dyspnea;
- The absence of cyanosis at rest, there is a load of spilled or perioral cyanosis;
- Coma and seizures;
- Tachycardia and bradycardia;
- Excessive sweating;
- Confusion and sudden pallor;
- The paradox of breath.
The obstruction of the lower airways and is most common in young children, and is a condition manifested by the following symptoms:
- The inability of the patient to breathe the air;
- The appearance of a loud sound, noise or rough whistling during inspiration;
- Slow heartbeat;
- Blue skin;
- Swelling of the lungs;
- Stop breathing.
If airway obstruction by a foreign body seen the development of Mount Athos, cyanosis and acute respiratory failure. Thus the patient can not speak, cough, breathing, he often grabs the throat may begin convulsions develop asfiksichesky syndrome. If the patient is not given in time of emergency, he faints, and then comes sudden death.
Treatment of obstructive airways
In identifying the first signs of obstruction of the patient must be rushed to the intensive care unit. Often, even in the pre-hospital first aid is required. If airway obstruction occurs in a child, it can not be left alone, it is important to reassure the child and take the hand, as fear, crying and anxiety can intensify the phenomenon of stenosis. First aid depends on the reasons for the state, as well as the severity of the obstruction.
If the airway foreign body is present, mucus, vomit, or liquid, it is necessary, provided that the patient is conscious, ask him to try a good cough. In cases where the patient can not cough or such manipulation does not help, it is possible to remove the complete obstruction of the airway foreign body, prehospital, apply the method Geymliha. Methods of receiving, if the patient is conscious, is the following:
- You must stand behind the patient to clasp his hands and pressed his hand on his stomach, on the level above the navel;
- Very fast to compress the chest pushes 4-5 times;
- Then, slowly continue to compress the chest until the foreign body is not released, and the patient begins to breathe.
If the patient is unconscious, the reception Geymliha as follows:
- The patient was placed back on the floor;
- A person providing first aid, sits on the thigh of the victim, putting one hand in nadpupkovuyu area of the patient;
- Second hand puts on first, then 5 times faster presses jerky movements on the abdomen;
- Then you need to open the victim's mouth and try to remove the foreign body bent index finger.
If the victim of increasing symptoms of airway obstruction and hypoventilation, gradually leading to heart failure, it is necessary to provide emergency resuscitation measures, which can not be done without special medical equipment.
General principles of treatment of airway obstruction in children in a medical institution, depending on the stage of the syndrome are:
- Measures aimed at restoring obstruction - the reduction or elimination of spasm and swelling of the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract;
- Eliminate obstruction - the liberation of the lumen of the larynx from the pathological secretion;
- Correction of metabolic disorders;
- Antibiotic therapy;
- Tracheal intubation;
Airway obstruction is a condition in which patients have at from the pharynx to the obstruction of the respiratory tract of the bronchioles. The victim is necessary to provide first aid and quickly delivered to the intensive care unit.