Adenocarcinoma - organonespetsificheskoe malignancy formed by altered cells of the glandular epithelium lining the internal organs. Adenocarcinoma affects various organs, ie the disease is not characterized by a clear localization.
Adenocarcinoma: typology malignancies
The term adenocarcinoma is also applied to a number of malignancies, which in the course of development of an organism affected gland. The peculiarity of forming cells adenocarcinoma is the ability to produce mucus. By type of secretion produced adenocarcinomas divided into serous and mucous-secretory. The neoplasm may be homogeneous or form cavities, so-called cysts. In this case, to talk about tsistadenokartsinoma.
Adenocarcinomas may be of different sizes, their structure and shape are totally dependent on the structural and functional features of cell organ tissue that form a tumor.
In the morphological genesis of adenocarcinoma are two main stages:
- Precancerous changes of tissues;
- Phase formation and tumor growth.
According to the degree of differentiation (acquisition of cells of various specialized functions) adenocarcinoma is divided into:
- Poorly differentiated - adenocarcinoma, a structure which can not be associated with specific tissues, are characterized by high degree of malignancy, the ability to form metastases;
- Moderately differentiated - tumor structure that is difficult to associate with the structure of the tissue, the cells of which it is formed;
- Highly differentiated - tumors characterized by the structure, similar to the structure of tissues, cells which form malignant tumors.
Adenocarcinoma of the stomach
Adenocarcinoma of the stomach is a histological type of gastric cancer. According to World Health Organization the following types of gastric adenocarcinoma:
Adenocarcinoma of the stomach is ranked fourth in the world among diagnosed malignancies. The disease is characterized by a very high mortality rates, which puts it in second place after lung cancer among cancer mortality indicators. Most gastric adenocarcinoma occurs in men. Metastases are formed in 82-94% of cases.
The main factors contributing to the development of adenocarcinoma is called:
- Features of diet and nutrition (deficiency of ascorbic acid, excessive use of salt, pickled, smoked, salted foods, fried foods, animal oils);
- Genetic factors;
- Bad habits (smoking, alcohol abuse);
- Infectious inflammation (infection of Helicobacter Pylori).
The main symptoms are gastric adenocarcinoma:
- Loss of appetite, impaired digestive function;
- Aversion to meat;
- Significant weight loss;
- The feeling of early satiety (saturation of the small amount of food);
- Stomach discomfort;
- Vomiting, bleeding, change in stool, abdominal distention, delayed stool (symptoms of the later stages);
- Pains of various kinds.
In the early stages of the disease is characterized by asymptomatic. Adenocarcinoma of the stomach should be differentiated from peptic ulcer, gastritis, benign tumors and other malignant tumors. Symptomatic complex early stages of adenocarcinoma little different from most of the symptoms of gastric diseases.
The main method of treatment of gastric adenocarcinoma is surgical excision of the tumor, often combined with resection of the stomach. Chemotherapy and radiation exposure are used as auxiliary methods.
Adenocarcinoma of the uterus
Adenocarcinoma of the uterus is a hormone-dependent malignant formation that affects the inner layer of the uterus - the endometrium. This form of the disease is the main morphological variant of uterine cancer. The disease is most commonly diagnosed in patients between the ages of 40 to 60 years.
Major risk factors for adenocarcinoma of the uterus are:
- The presence of adenocarcinoma or other cancers in the genital organs, breast cancer, ovarian family history;
- hypertonic disease;
- Hormonal imbalance of the body with high levels of estrogen;
The main symptoms of uterine adenocarcinomas are:
- Prior endometrial disease (inflammation, polyps, endometrial adenomatosis (increase in the number of glands in the endometrium), atypical hyperplasia of functional and / or basal layer of endometrial tissue);
- Chronic pain in the lumbar aching pulling character, not due to other factors;
- Prolonged menstrual bleeding painful nature;
- Uterine bleeding mid-cycle;
- Uterine bleeding during menopause;
- Atypical pain in the abdomen;
- Purulent vaginal discharge with an unpleasant odor;
- Sukrovichnye allocation during sexual intercourse.
4 distinguish stages of the disease, depending on the treatment strategy is determined. Adenocarcinoma of the uterus does not involve conservative methods of treatment. Hormone therapy, concomitant with radiation therapy, is used in cases where surgery is not possible due to the state of the patient. In the first stage of the disease is removed uterus with appendages. At the second stage of diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the uterus and nearby lymph nodes are removed, which could conceivably be affected by metastases.
Adenocarcinoma of the rectum
Adenocarcinoma of the colon - rectum cancer that develops from cells of the glandular epithelium. Adenocarcinoma of the rectum is considered to be age-related diseases often this malignancy diagnosed in patients after 50 years.
The main risk factors for adenocarcinoma of the rectum:
- Defective diet (deficit of fruit and vegetables in the diet, excess animal fats);
- Bad habits (smoking, alcohol abuse);
- Cancers of the digestive tract in family history, genetic predisposition;
- Chronic inflammation, polyps rectum;
- HPV infection;
- Anal intercourse.
Symptoms of adenocarcinoma of the rectum:
- Blood in the stool, pus and mucus in the bowel movement;
- Pain in the rectum, especially in the stool, sensation of a foreign body;
- Constipation and diarrhea.
In the absence of proper treatment of adenocarcinoma of the rectum grow into nearby organs, resulting in formation of fistulas between the rectum, bladder, perineum, gas and stool stand out through the urethra. Adenocarcinoma of the rectum involves surgery by removal or resection of the rectum.