Iritis (lat. Iris) and ciliary or ciliary body (lat. Corpus ciliare), are part of the choroid, called iridocyclitis. Iridocyclitis, is dangerous because it often strikes people in the most active age - from 20 to 40 years, although also found in children and the elderly. Iridocyclitis can be caused by various reasons, and according to a different flow, but generally respond well to therapy, despite a tendency to recur at some forms of the disease. However, in the absence of timely treatment of iridocyclitis can lead to vision loss.
Iridocyclitis can cause systemic autoimmune disease (iridocyclitis detected in 40% of people with this disorder), infectious disease organism or the presence in the body foci chronic sepsis, for example such as broken teeth caries process, as well as trauma to the eye, including the operational origin. Depending on the cause iridocyclitis is a specific form of the flow, and prognosis of the disease.
Depending on the nature of the flow:
- Acute iridocyclitis;
Based on the causes of iridocyclitis is divided into:
- toxic-allergic (they are infectious and allergic), and include rheumatic, arthritic, diabetic, flu-like, gonorrheal, herpes and t.d.k These include rheumatoid, flu-like, but in adverse conditions can become chronic and even the appropriate district;
- metastatic, including syphilitic, tuberculosis, brucellosis, etc .;
Also origin iridocyclitis are:
- endogenous (within the body cause of iridocyclitis);
- exogenous (traumatic, including postoperative).
Depending on the characteristics of flow:
- granulomatous iridocyclitis, where in the iris and ciliary body formed granulomas, which are accumulations of lymphoid, epithelioid, huge living and the dead cells;
- nongranulomatous iridocyclitis, where in the iris and ciliary body occurs effusion fibrinous exudate.
Depending on the form of the inflammatory process is iridocyclitis:
- fibrous, or plastic;
Symptoms may appear as iridocyclitis in one eye, and both. Symptoms iridocyclitis in various forms of the disease have some features, but there are common features characteristic of all types of the disease. Common symptoms iridocyclitis include sensitivity to light, up to photophobia, eye pain, aggravated by clicking on the eye during ophthalmic radiating branches of the trigeminal nerve, eye redness (hyperemia), change the color of the iris in the green alien to her or become rusty . Figure iris becomes blurred, pupil constriction and not react to light, vision in the affected eye is deteriorating. Intraocular pressure is normal or reduced, but chronic and recurrent forms of the disease can be increased up to the development of glaucoma.
For acute iridocyclitis is characterized by sharp manifestations: severe eye pain, headache, lacrimation and photophobia. In chronic course of iridocyclitis symptoms are milder and lingering manifestation of the pain is not too pronounced, there is no sharp reddening of the conjunctiva. But in this case are more pronounced atrophic changes: gross adhesions of the iris and the lens and as a consequence of their imperforate pupil, vitreous opacities, and others. Acute iridocyclitis more amenable to therapy, but in adverse conditions can become chronic and rediviruyuschuyu form.
Diagnosis is based on the presence of iridocyclitis characteristic symptoms, ophthalmic examination data, as well as the results of laboratory tests carried out with the help of high-precision equipment.
A doctor holds eye examination using a slit lamp (biomicroscopy of the eye), which allows to determine the nature of inflammation and to differentiate it from inflammatory changes in other diseases. If the resulting pattern corresponds to one of iridocyclitis toxic-allergic or metastatic forms, conduct additional tests in the profile specialist (endocrinologist, rheumatologist, immunologist, etc.). Usually, diagnosis iridocyclitis no difficulties.
Treatment of iridocyclitis
Treatment iridocyclitis should be consistent and resistant, despite the fact that it often takes a long time, from one to six months. The two main ways in which we treat iridocyclitis is firstly, reduce inflammation, and secondly, preventing the formation of adhesions and scarring, as these degenerative processes may result in complications and blindness.
As anti-inflammatory therapy for nonspecific iridocyclitis forms often use hormones (hydrocortisone, prednisolone), both topically and in the form of tablets. In introducing the forms shown receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics.
To prevent the formation of adhesions (adhesions) and fusion of the iris to the lens using the so-called mydriatics - drugs that expand the pupil. Also for this purpose it is widely used physiotherapy: Lydasum electrophoresis, trypsin and other drugs lytic action, heating, UV radiation, magnetic.
Treatment iridocyclitis induced endogenous causes, such as diabetes, rheumatism, systemic diseases, tuberculosis, and others, must be conducted in conjunction with the general treatment of disease, since in this case an insulated therapy eye give only short-term results and is likely to occur in a subsequent relapse.
A prerequisite of successful treatment of iridocyclitis is to eliminate all sources of chronic sepsis in the body. It is necessary to sanitize the mouth and to cure all chronic disease, because in addition to the fact that these are persistent pockets of breeding grounds for infection, they depress the immune system.
Iridocyclitis harder to treat in the cold season, so in this case it is necessary to comply with a special thermal regime - to avoid hypothermia and even a long stay in the cold.
Iridocyclitis forecast is largely dependent on its shape and the adequacy of the treatment. As a rule, if you can eliminate the cause of the disease, it is cured iridocyclitis. In the case where iridocyclitis is a symptom of severe systemic disease, it is necessary to make every effort to prevent the occurrence of complications and the spread of inflammation to other tissues of the eye. Overall, a favorable prognosis of iridocyclitis, provided treatment and observation by an ophthalmologist.